FoodGlycemic IndexGlycemic LoadDiabetic Carb ChoicesServing Size gramsserving ozAvail. Carb per serving
BAKERY PRODUCTS      
Cakes      
Angel food cake (Loblaw’s, Toronto, Canada)6719.41.9501.7629
Banana cake, made with sugar47±817.92.5802.8238
Banana cake, made without sugar55±1016.01.9802.8229
Chocolate cake made from packet mix with chocolate frosting (Betty Crocker, General Mills Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA)38±319.83.51113.9152
Croissant (Food City, Toronto, Canada)6717.41.7572.0126
Crumpet (Dempster’s Corporate Foods Ltd., Etobicoke, Canada)6913.11.3501.7619
Cupcake, strawberry-iced (Squiggles, Farmland, Grocery Holdings, Tooronga, Vic, Australia)73±1219.01.7381.3426
Doughnut, cake type (Loblaw’s, Canada)7617.51.5471.6623
Flan cake (Weston’s Bakery, Toronto, Canada)6531.23.2702.4748
Lamingtons (sponge dipped in chocolate and coconut) (Farmland, Grocery Holdings, Australia)87±1725.21.9501.7629
Pound cake (Sara Lee Canada, Bramalea, Canada)5415.11.9531.8728
Sponge cake, plain46±616.62.4632.2236
Vanilla cake made from packet mix with vanilla frosting (Betty Crocker, USA)42±424.43.91113.9158
Muffins      
Apple, made with sugar444±612.81.9602.1229
Apple, made without sugar448±109.11.3602.1219
Apple, oat, sultana, made from packet mix (Defiance Milling Co., Acacia Ridge, Qld, Australia)54±414.01.7501.7626
Apricot, coconut and honey, made from packet mix (Defiance Milling Co., Australia)60±415.61.7501.7626
Banana, oat and honey, made from packet mix (Defiance Milling Co., Australia)65±1116.91.7501.7626
Bran (Culinar Inc., Grandma Martin’s Muffins, Aurora, Canada)6014.41.6572.0124
Blueberry (Culinar Inc., Canada)5917.11.9572.0129
Carrot (Culinar Inc., Canada)6219.82.1572.0132
Chocolate butterscotch, made from packet mix (Defiance Milling Co., Australia)53±514.81.9501.7628
Corn muffin, low-amylose510229.61.9572.0129
Corn muffin, high-amylose549     
Oatmeal, muffin, made from mix (Quaker Oats Co. of Canada, Peterborough, Canada)6924.22.3501.7635
Pancakes, prepared from shake mix (Green’s General Foods, Glendenning, NSW, Australia)67±538.93.9802.8258
Pancakes, buckwheat, gluten-free, made from packet mix (Orgran Natural Foods, Carrum Downs, Vic, Australia)102±1122.41.5772.7222
Pastry59±615.31.7572.0126
Pikelets, Golden brand (Tip Top Bakeries, Chatswood, NSW, Australia)85±1417.91.4401.4121
Scones, plain, made from packet mix (Defiance Milling Co., Australia)92±87.40.5250.888
Waffles, Aunt Jemima (Quaker Oats Co. of Canada)769.90.9351.2313
BEVERAGES      
Coca Cola ®      
Coca Cola®, soft drink (Coca Cola Amatil, Sydney, NSW, Australia)53±713.81.72508.8226
Coca Cola®, soft drink/soda (Coca Cola Bottling Company, Atlanta, GA, USA)6316.41.72508.8226
mean of two types58±5     
Cordial, orange, reconstituted (Berri Ltd., Berri, SA, Australia)66±813.21.32508.8220
Fanta®, orange soft drink (Coca Cola Amatil, Australia)68±623.12.32508.8234
Lucozade®, original (sparkling glucose drink) (Glaxo Wellcome Ltd., Uxbridge, Middlesex, UK)95±1039.92.82508.8242
Smoothie, raspberry (Con Agra Inc., Omaha, NE, USA)33±913.52.72508.8241
Smoothie drink, soy, banana (So Natural Foods, Tarren Point, NSW, Australia)630±36.61.52508.8222
Smoothie drink, soy, chocolate hazelnut (So Natural Foods, Australia)634±38.51.72508.8225
Solo™, lemon squash, soft drink (Cadbury Schweppes, Sydney, NSW, Australia)658±516.81.92508.8229
Up & Go, cocoa malt flavor (soy milk, rice cereal liquid breakfast)6 (Sanitarium Health Foods, Berkeley Vale, NSW, Australia)43±511.21.72508.8226
Up & Go, original malt flavor (soy milk, rice cereal liquid breakfast)6 (Sanitarium Health Foods, Australia)46±511.01.62508.8224
Xpress, chocolate (soy bean, cereal and legume extract drink with fructose)6 (So Natural Foods, Australia)39±213.32.32508.8234
Juices      
Apple juice      
Apple juice, pure, unsweetened, reconstituted (Berri Ltd., Berri, SA, Australia)39±5     
Apple juice, unsweetened40     
Apple juice, unsweetened (Allens, Toronto, Canada)41     
mean of three studies40±111.61.92508.8229
Apple juice, pure, clear, unsweetened (Wild About Fruit, Wandin, Vic, Australia)44±213.22.02508.8230
Apple juice, pure, cloudy, unsweetened (Wild About Fruit, Australia)37±310.41.92508.8228
Apple and cherry juice, pure, unsweetened (Wild About Fruit, Australia)43±314.22.22508.8233
Carrot juice, freshly made (Sydney, Australia)643±39.91.52508.8223
Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray®, Melbourne, Vic, Australia)52±316.12.12508.8231
Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray® Inc., Lakeville-Middleboro, MA, USA)68±324.52.42508.8236
Cranberry juice drink, Ocean Spray® (Gerber Ltd., Bridgewater, Somerset, UK)56±416.21.92508.8229
Grapefruit juice, unsweetened (Sunpac, Toronto, Canada)4810.61.52508.8222
Orange juice      
Orange Juice (Canada)46±6     
Orange juice, unsweetened, reconstituted (Quelch®, Berri Ltd., Carlton, Vic, Australia)53±6     
mean of two studies50±413.01.72508.8226
Pineapple juice, unsweetened (Dole Packaged Foods, Toronto, Canada)4615.62.32508.8234
Tomato juice, canned, no added sugar (Berri Ltd., Berri, SA, Australia)638±43.40.62508.829
Yakult®, fermented milk drink with Lactobacilus casei (Yakult, Dandenong, Vic, Australia)46±65.50.8652.2912
Sports drinks      
Gatorade® (Spring Valley Beverages Pty Ltd., Cheltenham, Vic, Australia)78±1311.71.02508.8215
Isostar® (Novartis Consumer Health, Nyon, Switzerland)70±1512.61.22508.8218
Sports Plus® (Berri Ltd., Berri, SA, Australia)74±612.61.12508.8217
Sustagen Sport® (Mead Johnson, Rydalmere, NSW, Australia)43±921.13.32508.8249
Drinks made from drinking mix powders      
Build-Up™ nutrient-fortified drink, vanilla with fiber, (Nestlé, Sydney, NSW, Australia)41±413.52.22508.8233
Complete Hot Chocolate mix made with hot water (Nestlé, Australia)51±311.71.52508.8223
Hi-Pro energy drink mix, vanilla, containing soy protein and whey powder (Harrod foods, Sefton, NSW, Australia) mixed in reduced-fat (1.5%) cow’s milk36±36.81.32508.8219
Malted milk powder in full-fat cow’s milk (Nestlé, Australia)45±311.71.72508.8226
Milo™ (chocolate nutrient-fortified drink powder)      
Milo™ (Nestlé, Australia) dissolved in water55±38.81.12508.8216
Milo™ (Nestlé, Auckland, New Zealand) dissolved in water52±58.31.12508.8216
mean of two studies54±2     
Milo™ (Nestlé, Australia) dissolved in full-fat cow’s milk35±28.81.72508.8225
Milo™ (Nestlé, New Zealand) dissolved in full-fat cow’s milk36±39.41.72508.8226
mean of two studies36±1     
Nutrimeal™, meal replacement drink, Dutch Chocolate (Usana, Salt Lake City, UT, USA)26±34.41.12508.8217
Quik™ (sweet drink powder)      
Quik™, chocolate (Nestlé, Sydney, NSW, Australia), dissolved in water53±53.70.52508.827
Quik™, chocolate (Nestlé, Australia), dissolved in 1.5% fat milk41±44.50.72508.8211
Quik™, strawberry (Nestlé, Australia), dissolved in water64±85.10.52508.828
Quik™, strawberry (Nestlé, Australia), dissolved in 1.5% fat milk35±34.20.82508.8212
BREADS      
Bagel, white, frozen (Lender’s Bakery, Montreal, Canada)7225.22.3702.4735
Baguette, white, plain (France)95±1514.31.0301.0615
French baguette with chocolate spread (France)72±826.62.5702.4737
French baguette with butter and strawberry jam (France)62±725.42.7702.4741
Pain au lait (Pasquier, France)63±1020.22.1602.1232
Bread stuffing, Paxo (Campbell Soup Co Ltd., Toronto, Canada)7415.51.4301.0621
Barley Breads      
Coarse barley kernel bread, 75-80% kernels      
75% kernels275.41.3301.0620
80% scalded intact kernels (20% white wheat flour)346.81.3301.0620
80% intact kernels (20% white wheat flour)408.01.3301.0620
mean of three studies34±4     
Barley kernel bread, 50% kernels      
50% kernels (Canada)438.61.3301.0620
50% kibbled barley (Australia)489.61.3301.0620
mean of two studies46±29.21.3301.0620
Sunflower and barley bread (Riga bakeries, Sydney, NSW, Australia)57±66.30.7301.0611
Barley flour breads      
100% barley flour (rye bread composition) (Canada)678.70.9301.0613
Wholemeal barley flour (80%) bread (20% white wheat flour) (Sweden)6713.41.3301.0620
Wholemeal barley bread, flat, thin, soft (50% regular barley flour, 50% high-fibre barley flour) (Sweden)507.51.0301.0615
Wholemeal barley bread, flat, thin, soft (20% regular barley flour, 80% high-fibre barley flour) (Sweden)434.70.7301.0611
Wholemeal barley flour (80%) and white wheat flour (20%) breads – fermented or with added organic acids or salts (Sweden)  
Wholemeal barley flour bread (used as reference for the 5 breads below)57014.01.3301.0620
Wholemeal barley flour bread with sourdough (lactic acid)55310.61.3301.0620
Wholemeal barley flour bread with lactic acid56612.51.3301.0619
Wholemeal barley flour bread with calcium lactate55911.81.3301.0620
Wholemeal barley flour bread with sodium propionate56513.01.3301.0620
Wholemeal barley flour bread with higher dose sodium propionate55710.81.3301.0619
Buckwheat bread      
Buckwheat bread, 50% dehusked buckwheat groats and 50% white wheat flour (Sweden)479.91.4301.0621
Fruit Breads      
Bürgen™ Fruit loaf (Tip Top Bakeries, Chatswood, NSW, Australia)44±55.70.9301.0613
Fruit and Spice Loaf, thick sliced (Buttercup bakeries, Moorebank, NSW, Australia)54±68.11.0301.0615
Continental fruit loaf, wheat bread with dried fruit (Australia)47±67.11.0301.0615
Happiness™ (cinnamon, raisin, pecan bread) (Natural Ovens, Mannitowoc, WI, USA)63±58.80.9301.0614
Muesli bread, made from packet mix in bread making machine (Con Agra Inc., USA)54±66.50.8301.0612
Hamburger bun (Loblaw’s, Toronto, Canada)619.21.0301.0615
Kaiser rolls (Loblaw’s, Canada)7311.71.1301.0616
Melba toast, Old London (Best Foods Canada Inc., Etobicoke, Canada)7016.11.5301.0623
Gluten-free bread      
Gluten-free multigrain bread (Country Life Bakeries, Dandenong, Vic, Australia)79±1310.30.9301.0613
Gluten-free white bread, unsliced (gluten-free wheat starch) (UK)7110.71.0301.0615
Gluten-free white bread, sliced (gluten-free wheat starch) (UK)8012.01.0301.0615
mean of two studies76±511.41.0301.0615
Gluten-free fiber-enriched, unsliced (gluten-free wheat starch, soya bran) (UK)699.00.9301.0613
Gluten-free fiber-enriched, sliced (gluten-free wheat starch, soya bran) (UK)769.90.9301.0613
mean of two studies73±49.50.9301.0613
Oat Bread      
Coarse oat kernel bread, 80% intact oat kernels and 20% white wheat flour (Sweden)6512.41.3301.0619
Oat bran bread      
50% oat bran (Australia)447.91.2301.0618
45% oat bran and 50% wheat flour (Sweden)509.01.2301.0618
mean of two studies47±38.51.2301.0618
Rice bread      
Rice bread, low-amylose Calrose rice (Pav’s Allergy Bakery, Ingleburn, NSW, Australia)72±98.60.8301.0612
Rice bread, high-amylose Doongara rice (Pav’s Allergy Bakery, Australia)61±97.30.8301.0612
Rye Bread      
Rye kernel (pumpernickel) bread      
Coarse rye kernel bread, 80% intact kernels and 20% white wheat flour (Sweden)414.90.8301.0612
Rye kernel bread (Pumpernickel) (Canada)414.90.8301.0612
Wholegrain pumpernickel (Holtzheuser Brothers Ltd., Toronto, Canada)465.10.7301.0611
Rye kernel bread, Pumpernickel (80% kernels) (Canada)556.60.8301.0612
Cocktail, sliced (Kasselar Food Products, Toronto, Canada)556.60.8301.0612
Cocktail, sliced (Kasselar Food Products, Canada)627.40.8301.0612
mean of six studies50±46.00.8301.0612
Rye bread, wholemeal      
Wholemeal rye bread (Canada)41     
Wholemeal rye bread (Canada)62     
Wholemeal rye bread (Canada)63     
Wholemeal rye bread (Canada)66     
mean of four studies58±68.10.9301.0614
Rye breads, specialty      
Blackbread, Riga (Berzin’s Specialty Bakery, Sydney, NSW, Australia)76±149.90.9301.0613
Bürgen™ Dark/Swiss rye (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia)55±12     
Bürgen™ Dark/Swiss rye (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia)74±6     
mean of two studies65±106.50.7301.0610
Klosterbrot wholemeal rye bread (Dimpflmeier Bakery Ltd., Canada)678.70.9301.0613
Light rye (Silverstein’s Bakery, Toronto, Canada)689.50.9301.0614
Linseed rye (Rudolph’s Specialty Bakery Ltd., Toronto, Canada)557.20.9301.0613
Roggenbrot, Vogel’s (Stevns & Co, Sydney, NSW, Australia)59±58.30.9301.0614
Schinkenbrot, Riga (Berzin’s Specialty Bakery, Sydney, NSW, Australia)86±1512.00.9301.0614
Sourdough rye (Canada)57     
Sourdough rye (Australia)48     
mean of two studies53±56.40.8301.0612
Volkornbrot, wholemeal rye bread (Dimpflmeier Bakery Ltd., Canada)567.30.9301.0613
Wheat Breads      
Coarse wheat kernel bread, 80% intact kernels and 20% white wheat flour (Sweden)5210.41.3301.0620
Cracked wheat kernel – bulgur bread      
50% cracked wheat kernel (Canada)5811.61.3301.0620
75% cracked wheat kernels (Canada)489.61.3301.0620
mean of two studies53±310.61.3301.0620
Spelt wheat breads      
White spelt wheat bread9 (Slovenia)7417.01.5301.0623
Wholemeal spelt wheat bread9 (Slovenia)6312.01.3301.0619
Scalded spelt wheat kernel bread9 (Slovenia)6714.71.5301.0622
Spelt multigrain bread® (Pav’s bakery, Australia)54±106.50.8301.0612
White wheat flour bread      
White flour (Canada)69±59.70.9301.0614
White flour (USA)709.80.9301.0614
White flour, Sunblest™ (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia)709.80.9301.0614
White flour (Dempster’s Corporate Foods Ltd., Canada)719.90.9301.0614
White flour (South Africa)71±79.20.9301.0613
White flour (Canada)719.90.9301.0614
mean of six studies70±09.80.9301.0614
White wheat flour bread, hard, toasted (Italian)7311.01.0301.0615
Wonder™, enriched white bread (Interstate Brands Companies, Kansas City, MO, USA)71±9     
Wonder™, enriched white bread (Interstate Brands Companies, USA)72±4     
Wonder™, enriched white bread (Interstate Brands Companies, USA)77±3     
mean of three studies73±210.20.9301.0614
White Turkish bread (Turkey)8714.81.1301.0617
White bread with enzyme inhibitors      
White bread + acarbose (200mg) (Mexico)183.11.1301.0617
White bread + acarbose (200mg) (Mexico)508.51.1301.0617
mean in two groups of subjects34±165.81.1301.0617
White bread roll + 3 mg trestatin (pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibitor) (Switzerland)5485.80.8301.0612
White bread roll + 6 mg trestatin (Switzerland)5293.50.8301.0612
White bread with soluble fiber      
White bread + 15 g psyllium fiber (Plantago psyllium) (Mexico)417.01.1301.0617
White bread + 15 g psyllium fiber (Plantago psyllium) (Mexico)6511.11.1301.0617
mean in two groups of subjects53±129.01.1301.0617
White bread eaten with vinegar as vinaigrette (Sweden)456.81.0301.0615
White bread eaten with powdered dried seaweed (Nori alga) (Spain)487.21.0301.0615
White bread containing Eurylon® high-amylose maize starch (France)12428.01.3301.0619
White fiber-enriched bread      
White, high-fiber (Dempster’s Corporate Foods Ltd., Canada)67     
White, high-fiber (Weston’s Bakery, Toronto, Canada)69     
mean of two studies68±18.80.9301.0613
White resistant starch-enriched bread      
Fibre White™ (Nature’s Fresh, Auckland, New Zealand)77±1011.61.0301.0615
Wonderwhite™ (Buttercup Bakeries, Australia)80±811.20.9301.0614
Wholemeal wheat flour bread (whole wheat)       
Wholemeal flour (Canada)526.20.8301.0612
Wholemeal flour (Canada)647.70.8301.0612
Wholemeal flour (Canada)657.80.8301.0612
Wholemeal flour (Canada)678.00.8301.0612
Wholemeal flour (Canada)678.00.8301.0612
Wholemeal flour (Canada)698.30.8301.0612
Wholemeal flour (Canada)718.50.8301.0612
Wholemeal flour (Canada)72±68.60.8301.0612
Wholemeal flour (USA)57310.20.9301.0614
Wholemeal flour (South Africa)75±99.80.9301.0613
Wholemeal flour (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia)77±99.20.8301.0612
Wholemeal flour (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia)78±169.40.8301.0612
Wholemeal flour (Kenya)8711.30.9301.0613
mean of thirteen studies71± 29.20.9301.0613
Wholemeal Turkish bread497.81.1301.0616
Specialty wheat breads      
Bürgen® Mixed Grain bread (Australia)      
Bürgen® Mixed Grain (Tip Top Bakeries, Chatswood, NSW, Australia)34±4     
Bürgen® Mixed Grain45±12     
Bürgen® Mixed Grain69±6     
mean of three studies49±105.40.7301.0611
Bürgen® Oat Bran & Honey Loaf with Barley (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia)31±33.10.7301.0610
Bürgen® Soy-Lin, kibbled soy (8%) and linseed (8%) loaf (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia)36±43.20.6301.069
English Muffin™ bread (Natural Ovens, USA)77±710.80.9301.0614
Healthy Choice™ Hearty 7 Grain (Con Agra Inc., USA)55±67.70.9301.0614
Healthy Choice™ Hearty 100% Whole Grain (Con Agra Inc., USA)62±68.70.9301.0614
Helga’s™ Classic Seed Loaf (Quality Bakers, Sydney, NSW, Australia)68±99.50.9301.0614
Helga’s™ traditional wholemeal bread (Quality Bakers, Australia)70±149.10.9301.0613
Hunger Filler™, whole grain bread (Natural Ovens, USA)59±87.70.9301.0613
Molenberg™ (Goodman Fielder, Auckland, New Zealand)75±10     
Molenberg™ (Goodman Fielder, New Zealand)84±8     
mean of two studies80±511.20.9301.0614
9-Grain Multi-Grain (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia)43±56.00.9301.0614
Multigrain Loaf, spelt wheat flour (Australia)54±108.11.0301.0615
Multigrain (50% kibbled wheat grain) (Australia)436.00.9301.0614
Nutty Natural™, whole grain bread (Natural Ovens, USA)59±77.10.8301.0612
Performax™ (Country Life Bakeries, Dandenong, Vic, Australia)38±34.90.9301.0613
Ploughman’s™ Wholegrain, original recipe (Quality Bakers, Australia)476.60.9301.0614
Ploughman’s™ Wholemeal, smooth milled (Quality Bakers, Australia)64±108.30.9301.0613
Semolina Bread (Kenya)64     
Sourdough wheat (Australia)547.60.9301.0614
Soy & Linseed bread (made from packet mix in bread maker) (Con Agra Inc., USA)50±65.00.7301.0610
Stay Trim™, whole grain bread (Natural Ovens, USA)70±1010.51.0301.0615
Sunflower & Barley bread, Riga brand (Berzin’s Specialty Bakery, Australia)57±67.40.9301.0613
Vogel’s Honey & Oats (Stevns & Co., Sydney, NSW, Australia)55±57.70.9301.0614
Vogel’s Roggenbrot (Stevns & Co., Australia)59±58.30.9301.0614
Whole-wheat snack bread (Ryvita Co Ltd., Poole, Dorset, UK)7416.31.5301.0622
100% Whole Grain™ bread (Natural Ovens, USA)51±116.60.9301.0613
White wheat flour flatbread (Sweden)7912.61.1301.0616
Unleavened Breads      
Lebanese bread, white (Seda Bakery, Sydney, NSW, Australia)75±912.01.1301.0616
Middle Eastern flatbread97±2915.51.1301.0616
Pita bread, white (Canada)579.71.1301.0617
Wheat flour flatbread (India)66±910.61.1301.0616
Amaranth : wheat (25:75) composite flour flatbread (India)66±109.91.0301.0615
Amaranth : wheat (50:50) composite flour flatbread (India)76±2011.41.0301.0615
BREAKFAST CEREALS AND RELATED PRODUCTS      
All-Bran™ (high-fiber, extruded wheat bran cereal)      
All-Bran™ (Kellogg’s, Pagewood, NSW, Australia)13304.51.0301.0615
All-Bran™ (Kellogg’s, Battle Creek, MI, USA)388.71.5301.0623
All-Bran™ (Kellogg’s Inc., Etobicoke, Canada)5011.51.5301.0623
All-Bran™ (Kellogg’s Inc., Canada)51±511.71.5301.0623
mean of four studies42±5     
All-Bran Fruit ‘n Oats™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)396.61.1301.0617
All-Bran Soy ‘n Fibre™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)33±34.60.9301.0614
Amaranth (Amaranthus esculentum) popped, eaten with milk and non-nutritive sweetener (India)97±1918.41.3301.0619
Barley porridge      
Wholemeal barley flour porridge (100% regular barley) (flour:water = 1:3), boiled 2.5 min (Sweden)6823.12.350 (dry)1.7634
Wholemeal high-fibre barley flour porridge (50% regular barley flour: 50% high-fibre barley flour) (Sweden)558.31.050 (dry)1.7615
Barley porridge made from steamed thin (0.5 mm) dehulled barley flakes (Sweden)6217.41.950 (dry)1.7628
Barley porridge made from steamed thick (1.0 mm) dehulled barley flakes (Sweden)6518.21.950 (dry)1.7628
Bran Buds™ (Kellogg’s Inc., Canada)15587.00.8301.0612
Bran Buds with psyllium (Kellogg’s Inc., Canada)15475.60.8301.0612
Bran Chex™ (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Toronto, Canada)155811.01.3301.0619
Bran Flakes™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)7413.31.2301.0618
Cheerios™ (General Mills Inc., Etobicoke, Canada)157414.81.3301.0620
Chocapic™ (Nestlé, France)84±921.01.7301.0625
Coco Pops™ (cocoa flavoured puffed rice)      
Coco Pops™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)77±8     
Coco Pops™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)77±3     
mean of two studies7720.01.7301.0626
Corn Bran™ (Quaker Oats Co. of Canada, Peterborough, Canada)157515.01.3301.0620
Corn Chex™ (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada)158320.81.7301.0625
Cornflakes™      
Cornflakes™ (Kellogg’s, Auckland, New Zealand)72±1618.01.7301.0625
Cornflakes™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)7719.31.7301.0625
Cornflakes™ (Kellogg’s Inc., Canada)80±620.81.7301.0626
Cornflakes™ (Kellogg’s Inc., Canada)8622.41.7301.0626
Cornflakes™ (Kellogg’s, USA)59223.91.7301.0626
mean of five studies81±321.11.7301.0626
Cornflakes, high-fiber (Presidents Choice, Sunfresh Ltd., Toronto, Canada)157417.01.5301.0623
Cornflakes, Crunchy Nut™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)72±417.31.6301.0624
Corn Pops™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)80±420.81.7301.0626
Cream of Wheat™ (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada)156617.21.72508.8226
Cream of Wheat™, Instant (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada)157422.22.02508.8230
Crispix™ (Kellogg’s Inc., Canada)158721.81.7301.0625
Energy Mix™ (Quaker, France)80±719.21.6301.0624
Froot Loops™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)69±917.91.7301.0626
Frosties™, sugar-coated cornflakes (Kellogg’s, Australia)5514.31.7301.0626
Fruitful Lite™ (Hubbards, Auckland, New Zealand)61±2012.21.3301.0620
Fruity-Bix™, berry (Sanitarium, Auckland, New Zealand)113±1024.91.5301.0622
Golden Grahams™ (General Mills Inc., Canada)157117.81.7301.0625
Golden Wheats™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)71±816.31.5301.0623
Grapenuts™      
Grapenuts™ (Post, Kraft General Foods Inc., Toronto, Canada)156712.71.3301.0619
Grapenuts™ (Kraft Foods Inc., Port Chester, NY, USA)75±616.51.5301.0622
mean of two studies71±414.91.4301.0621
Grapenuts™ Flakes (Post, Kraft General Foods Inc., Canada)158017.61.5301.0622
Guardian™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)37±94.40.8301.0612
Healthwise™ for bowel health (Uncle Toby’s, Wahgunyah, Vic, Australia)66±911.91.2301.0618
Healthwise™ for heart health (Uncle Toby’s, Australia)48±59.11.3301.0619
Honey Rice Bubbles™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)77±420.81.8301.0627
Honey Smacks™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)71±1016.31.5301.0623
Hot cereal, apple & cinnamon (Con Agra Inc., USA)37±68.11.5301.0622
Hot cereal, unflavoured (Con Agra Inc., USA)25±54.81.3301.0619
Just Right™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)60±1513.21.5301.0622
Just Right Just Grains™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)62±1114.31.5301.0623
Komplete™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)48±510.11.4301.0621
Life™ (Quaker Oats Co., Canada)156616.51.7301.0625
Mini Wheats™, whole wheat (Kellogg’s, Australia)58±812.21.4301.0621
Mini Wheats™, blackcurrant (Kellogg’s, Australia)72±1015.11.4301.0621
Muesli      
Muesli, NS8 (Canada)66±915.81.6301.0624
Alpen Muesli (Wheetabix, France)55±1010.51.3301.0619
Muesli, gluten-free (Freedom Foods, Cheltenham, Vic, Australia) with 1.5% fat milk39±67.41.3301.0619
Muesli, Lite (Sanitarium, New Zealand)54±129.71.2301.0618
Muesli, Natural (Sanitarium, New Zealand)57±910.81.3301.0619
Muesli, Natural (Sanitarium, Australia)40±67.61.3301.0619
mean of two studies49±99.81.3301.0620
Muesli, No Name (Sunfresh Ltd., Toronto, Canada)156010.81.2301.0618
Muesli, Swiss Formula (Uncle Toby’s, Australia)56±89.01.1301.0616
Muesli, toasted (Purina, Sydney, NSW, Australia)43±47.31.1301.0617
Nutrigrain™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)66±129.91.0301.0615
Oat ‘n Honey Bake™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)77±1113.11.1301.0617
Oat bran      
Oat bran, raw (Quaker Oats Co., Canada)15502.50.3100.355
Oat bran, raw593.00.3100.355
mean of two studies55±52.80.3100.355
Porridge made from rolled oats      
Porridge (Uncle Toby’s, Australia)13428.81.42508.8221
Porridge (Canada)1649±811.31.52508.8223
Traditional porridge oats (Lowan Whole Foods, Box Hill, Vic, Australia)51±810.71.42508.8221
Porridge (Hubbards, New Zealand)58±912.21.42508.8221
Porridge (Australia)58±412.21.42508.8221
Porridge (Canada)6214.31.52508.8223
Porridge (Canada)6915.91.52508.8223
Porridge (USA)67517.31.52508.8223
mean of eight studies58±412.81.52508.8222
Wholemeal oat flour porridge (flour:water = 1:3), boiled 2.5 min (Sweden)7423.72.150 (dry)1.7632
Oat porridge made from thick (1.0 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden)5514.91.82508.8227
Oat porridge made from roasted thin (0.5 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden)6918.61.82508.8227
Oat porridge made from roasted thick (1.0 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden)5013.51.82508.8227
Oat porridge made from roasted and steamed thin (0.5 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden)8021.61.82508.8227
Oat porridge made from steamed thick (1.0 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden)5314.31.82508.8227
Instant Porridge      
Quick Oats (Quaker Oats Co., Canada)65     
One Minute Oats (Quaker Oats Co., Canada)1566     
mean of two studies66±117.21.72508.8226
Pop Tarts™, Double Chocolate (Kellogg’s, Australia)70±225.22.4501.7636
Pro Stars™ (General Mills Inc., Canada)157117.01.6301.0624
Puffed Wheat      
Puffed Wheat (Quaker Oats Co., Canada)156713.41.3301.0620
Puffed Wheat (Sanitarium, Australia)80±1116.81.4301.0621
mean of two studies74±715.51.4301.0621
Raisin Bran™ (Kellogg’s, USA)61±511.61.3301.0619
Red River Cereal (Maple Leaf Mills, Toronto, Canada)4910.81.5301.0622
Rice Bran, extruded (Rice Growers Co-Operative Ltd., Leeton, NSW, Australia)19±32.70.9301.0614
Rice Bubbles™ (puffed rice)      
Rice Bubbles™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)1381     
Rice Bubbles™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)85±3     
Rice Bubbles™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)95     
mean of three studies87±422.61.7301.0626
Rice Chex™ (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada)158923.11.7301.0626
Rice Krispies™ (Kellogg’s Inc., Canada)158221.31.7301.0626
Shredded Wheat      
Shredded Wheat (Canada)67±1013.41.3301.0620
Shredded Wheat™ (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada)158316.61.3301.0620
mean of two studies75±815.01.3301.0620
Special K™ – formulation of this cereal varies in different countries      
Special K™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)54±411.31.4301.0621
Special K™ (Kellogg’s, USA)69±514.51.4301.0621
Special K™ (Kellogg’s, France)84±1220.21.6301.0624
Soy Tasty™ (flaked grains, soy nuts, dried fruit) (Sanitarium, Australia)60±512.01.3301.0620
Soytana™, Vogel’s, soy and linseed bran crunch with sultanas (20.1 g fiber per 100 g), (Specialty Cereals, Mt Kuring-gai, NSW, Australia)49±312.31.7451.5925
Sultana Bran™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)73±1313.91.3301.0619
Sustain™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)136815.01.5301.0622
Team™ (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada)158218.01.5301.0622
Thank Goodness™ (Hubbards, New Zealand)65±1815.01.5301.0623
Total™ (General Mills Inc., Canada)157616.71.5301.0622
Ultra-bran™, Vogel’s, soy and linseed extruded wheat bran cereal (30.2 g fiber per 100 g) (Specialty Cereals, Australia)41±45.30.9301.0613
Wheat-bites™ (Uncle Toby’s, Australia)72±1118.01.7301.0625
Wheat biscuits (plain flaked wheat)      
Vita-Brits™ (Uncle Toby’s, Australia)136112.21.3301.0620
Vita-Brits™ (Uncle Toby’s, Australia)68±613.61.3301.0620
Weet-Bix™ (Sanitarium, Australia)6911.71.1301.0617
Weet-Bix™ (Sanitarium, Australia)69±411.71.1301.0617
Weetabix™ (Weetabix of Canada Ltd., Thornhill, Canada)157416.31.5301.0622
Weetabix™ (Weetabix of Canada Ltd.)75±1016.51.5301.0622
Whole wheat Goldies™ (Kellogg’s, Australia)70±414.01.3301.0620
mean of seven studies70±213.31.3301.0619
Wheat biscuits (flaked wheat) with additional ingredients      
Good Start™, muesli wheat biscuits (Sanitarium, Australia)68±413.61.3301.0620
Hi-Bran Weet-Bix™, wheat biscuits with extra wheat bran (Sanitarium, Australia)61±410.41.1301.0617
Hi-Bran Weet-Bix™ with soy and linseed (Sanitarium, Australia)57±39.11.1301.0616
Honey Goldies™ (Kellogg’s Australia)72±315.11.4301.0621
Lite-Bix™, plain, no added sugar (Sanitarium, Australia)70±314.01.3301.0620
Oat bran Weet-Bix™ (Sanitarium, Australia)57±411.41.3301.0620
Sultana Goldies™ (Kellogg’s Australia)65±613.71.4301.0621
BREAKFAST CEREAL BARS      
Crunchy Nut Cornflakes™ bar (Kellogg’s, Australia)72±618.71.7301.0626
Fibre Plus™ bar (Uncle Toby’s, Australia)78±917.91.5301.0623
Fruity-Bix™ bar, fruit and nut, wheat biscuit cereal with dried fruit and nuts with yoghurt coating (Sanitarium, Australia)56±410.61.3301.0619
Fruity-Bix™ bar, wild berry, wheat biscuit cereal with fruit and covered with yoghurt coating (Sanitarium, Australia)51±49.71.3301.0619
K-Time Just Right™ bar (Kellogg’s, Australia)72±417.31.6301.0624
K-Time Strawberry Crunch™ bar (Kellogg’s, Australia)77±519.31.7301.0625
Rice Bubble Treat™ bar (Kellogg’s, Australia)63±1115.11.6301.0624
Sustain™ bar (Kellogg’s, Australia)57±1014.31.7301.0625
CEREAL / GRAINS      
Amaranth      
Amaranth (Amaranthus esculentum) popped, eaten with milk and non-nutritive sweetener (India)97±1921.31.5301.0622
Barley      
Pearl Barley      
Barley, pearled (Canada)22     
Barley (Canada)22     
Barley, pot, boiled in salted water 20 min (Gouda’s foods, Concord, Canada)25±2     
Barley (Canada)27     
Barley, pearled (Canada)29     
mean of five studies25±110.52.81505.2942
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) (India)37     
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) (India)48     
mean of two groups of subjects43±618.12.81505.2942
Barley, cracked (Malthouth, Tunisia)5021.02.81505.2942
Barley, rolled (Australia)66±525.12.550 (dry)1.7638
Buckwheat      
Buckwheat (Canada)49     
Buckwheat (Canada)51±10     
Buckwheat (Canada)63     
mean of three studies54±416.22.01505.2930
Buckwheat groats, hydrothermally treated, dehusked, boiled 12 min (Sweden)4513.52.01505.2930
Corn/Maize      
Maize (Zea Mays), flour made into chapatti (India)59     
Maize meal porridge/gruel (Kenya)109     
Cornmeal      
Cornmeal, boiled in salted water 2 min (McNair Products Co. Ltd., Toronto, Canada)688.80.91505.2913
Cornmeal + margarine (McNair Products Co. Ltd., Canada)698.30.81505.2912
mean of two studies69±19.00.91505.2913
Sweet corn      
Sweet corn, ‘Honey & Pearl’ variety (New Zealand)37±1211.12.01505.2930
Sweet corn, on the cob, boiled 20 min (Australia)4814.42.01505.2930
Sweet corn (Canada)59±1119.52.21505.2933
Sweet corn (USA)6019.82.21505.2933
Sweet corn (USA)6019.82.21505.2933
Sweet corn (South Africa)62±520.52.21505.2933
mean of six studies53±417.02.11505.2932
Sweet corn, whole kernel, canned, diet-pack, drained (Featherweight, USA)4612.91.91505.2928
Sweet corn, frozen, reheated in microwave (Green Giant Pillsbury Ltd., Toronto, Canada)4715.52.21505.2933
Taco shells, cornmeal-based, baked (Old El Paso Foods Co., Toronto, Canada)688.20.8200.7112
Couscous      
Couscous, boiled 5 min (Near East Food Products Co., Leominster, MA, USA)61     
Couscous, boiled 5 min (Tunisia)69     
mean of two studies65±422.82.31505.2935
Millet      
Millet, boiled (Canada)71±1025.62.41505.2936
Millet flour porridge (Kenya)107     
Rice, white      
Arborio, risotto rice, boiled (Sun Rice brand, Rice Growers Co-Op., Australia)69±736.63.51505.2953
White (Oryza sativa), boiled (India)69±1529.72.91505.2943
Rice, boiled white, type NS8      
Type NS, eaten alone (France)4513.52.01505.2930
Type NS (India)4818.22.51505.2938
Type NS (Canada)5121.42.81505.2942
Type NS (France)5218.72.41505.2936
Type NS (Canada)5623.52.81505.2942
Type NS (Pakistan)6926.22.51505.2938
Type NS (Canada)72±930.22.81505.2942
Type NS, boiled in salted water (India)7227.42.51505.2938
Type NS, boiled 13 min (Italy)10230.62.01505.2930
Type NS (Kenya)11247.02.81505.2942
Type NS, boiled (France)4312.92.01505.2930
Type NS, boiled (France)4714.12.01505.2930
mean of 12 studies64±723.02.41505.2936
Type NS, boiled in salted water, refrigerated 16-20h, reheated (India)5320.12.51505.2938
Type NS, boiled 13 min, then baked 10 min (Italy)10431.22.01505.2930
Long grain, boiled      
Long grain, boiled 5 min (Canada)4116.42.71505.2940
Long grain, white, unconverted, boiled 15 min (Mahatma brand, Riviana Foods, Wetherill Park, NSW, Australia )5021.52.91505.2943
Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc., Toronto, Canada)5522.02.71505.2940
Long grain, white (Uncle Bens, Auckland, New Zealand)56±724.12.91505.2943
Long grain, boiled 25 min (Surinam)56±224.12.91505.2943
Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc., Canada)5722.82.71505.2940
Long grain, boiled 15 min5823.22.71505.2940
Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc., Canada)6024.02.71505.2940
Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc., Canada)6024.02.71505.2940
Long grain, white, boiled 7 min (Star brand, Gouda foods, Concord, Canada)64±325.62.71505.2940
mean of 10 studies56±223.02.71505.2941
Rice, long grain, quick-cooking varieties      
Long grain, parboiled 10 min cooking time (Uncle Ben’s, Masterfoods, Belgium)68±625.22.51505.2937
Long grain, parboiled, 20 min cooking time (Uncle Ben’s, Masterfoods, Belgium)75±727.82.51505.2937
Long grain, white, pre-cooked, microwaved 2 min (Express Rice, plain, Uncle Ben’s, Masterfoods King’s Lynn, Norfolk, UK)52±519.22.51505.2937
Rice, specialty rices      
Cajun Style, Uncle Ben’s® (Effem Foods Ltd., Bolton, Canada)5118.92.51505.2937
Garden Style, Uncle Ben’s® (Effem Foods Ltd., Canada)5520.42.51505.2937
Long Grain and Wild, Uncle Ben’s® (Effem Foods Ltd., Canada)5420.02.51505.2937
Mexican Fast and Fancy, Uncle Ben’s® (Effem Foods Ltd., Canada)5821.52.51505.2937
Saskatchewan wild rice (Canada)5718.22.11505.2932
Broken rice, white, cooked in rice cooker (Lion Foods, Bangkok, Thailand)86±1037.02.91505.2943
Glutinous rice, white, cooked in rice cooker (Bangsue Chia Meng Rice Mill, Bangkok, Thailand)98±731.42.11505.2932
Jasmine rice, white long grain, cooked in rice cooker (Golden World Foods, Bangkok, Thailand)109±1045.82.81505.2942
Rice, white low-amylose      
Calrose, white, medium grain, boiled (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia)83±1335.72.91505.2943
Sungold, Pelde, parboiled (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia)87±737.42.91505.2943
Waxy (0-2% amylose) (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia)88±1137.82.91505.2943
Pelde, white (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia)93±1140.02.91505.2943
White, low-amylose, boiled (Turkey)13959.82.91505.2943
Rice, white high-amylose      
Bangladeshi rice variety BR16 (28% amylose)3714.42.61505.2939
Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, white, long-grain (27% amylose), boiled 17.5 min3915.22.61505.2939
mean of two studies3814.82.61505.2939
Doongara, white (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia)50±6     
Doongara, white (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia)64±9     
Doongara, white (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia)54±7     
mean of three studies56±421.82.61505.2939
Koshikari (Japonica), white, short-grain, boiled 15 min then steamed 10 min (Japan)48±818.22.51505.2938
Basmati      
Basmati, white, boiled (Mahatma brand, Sydney, NSW, Australia)58±822.02.51505.2938
Precooked basmati rice in pouch, white, reheated in microwave, Uncle Ben’s Express® (Masterfoods. Kings Lynn, Norfolk, UK)57±423.42.71505.2941
Quick cooking white basmati, cooked 10 min, Uncle Ben’s® Superior (Masterfoods Olen, Belgium)60±522.82.51505.2938
Rice, brown      
Brown (Canada)66±521.82.21505.2933
Brown, steamed (USA)55016.52.21505.2933
Brown (Oriza Sativa), boiled (South India)550±1916.52.21505.2933
mean of three studies55±518.22.21505.2933
Calrose brown (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia)87±833.12.51505.2938
Doongara brown, high amylose (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia)66±724.42.51505.2937
Pelde brown (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia)76±628.92.51505.2938
Parboiled, cooked 20 min, Uncle Ben’s Natur-reis ® (Masterfoods Olen, Belgium)64±723.02.41505.2936
Sunbrown Quick™ (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia)80±730.42.51505.2938
Instant/puffed rice      
Instant rice, white, boiled 1 min (Canada)4619.32.81505.2942
Instant rice, white, cooked 6 min (Trice brand, Australia)8736.52.81505.2942
Puffed, white, cooked 5 min, Uncle Ben’s Snabbris® (Masterfoods Olen, Belgium)74±531.12.81505.2942
mean of three studies69±1229.02.81505.2942
Instant doongara, white, cooked 5 min (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia)94±739.52.81505.2942
Parboiled rice      
Parboiled rice (Canada)4817.32.41505.2936
Parboiled rice (USA)7225.92.41505.2936
Converted, white, Uncle Ben’s® (Effem Foods Ltd., Canada)4516.22.41505.2936
Converted, white, boiled 20-30 min, Uncle Ben’s® (Masterfoods USA, Vernon, CA)3813.72.41505.2936
Converted, white, long grain, boiled 20-30 min, Uncle Ben’s® (Masterfoods USA)5018.02.41505.2936
Boiled, 12 min (Denmark)63914.02.41505.2936
Boiled, 12 min (Denmark)4215.12.41505.2936
Boiled, 12 min (Denmark)4315.52.41505.2936
Boiled, 12 min (Denmark)4616.62.41505.2936
Long grain, boiled 5 min (Canada)3813.72.41505.2936
Long grain, boiled, 10 min (USA)56122.02.41505.2936
Long grain, boiled 15 min (Canada)4716.92.41505.2936
Long grain, boiled 25 min (Canada)4616.62.41505.2936
mean of thirteen studies47±316.92.41505.2936
Parboiled rice, eaten as part of a traditional Indian meal (India)599     
Parboiled, low-amylose      
Bangladeshi rice variety BR2, parboiled (12% amylose)5119.42.51505.2938
Parboiled, low-amylose, Pelde, Sungold (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia)87±733.92.61505.2939
Parboiled, high-amylose      
Parboiled, high-amylose (28%), Doongara (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia)50±619.52.61505.2939
Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, parboiled (28% amylose)3513.02.51505.2937
Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, traditionally parboiled (27% amylose)3212.22.51505.2938
Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, pressure parboiled (27% amylose)2711.12.71505.2941
Bangladeshi rice variety BR4, parboiled (27% amylose)3312.52.51505.2938
Mean of 5 studies35±413.72.61505.2939
Rye, whole kernels      
Rye, whole kernels (Canada)2911.02.550 (dry)1.7638
Rye, whole kernels, pressure cooked (15 psi) 30 min in 2 L water (Canada)3412.92.550 (dry)1.7638
Rye, whole kernels (Canada)3914.82.550 (dry)1.7638
mean of three studies34±312.92.550 (dry)1.7638
Wheat      
Wheat, whole kernels      
Wheat, whole kernels (Triticum aestivum) (India)1130±911.42.550 (dry)1.7638
Wheat, whole kernels (Canada)4213.92.250 (dry)1.7633
Wheat, whole kernels, pressure cooked (15 psi) 30 min in 2 L water (Canada)4414.52.250 (dry)1.7633
Wheat, whole kernels (Canada)4815.82.250 (dry)1.7633
mean of four studies41±313.92.350 (dry)1.7634
Wheat, type NS8 (India)9034.22.550 (dry)1.7638
Wheat, precooked kernels      
Durum wheat, precooked, cooked 20 min (Ebly, Chateaudun, France)52±419.22.550 (dry)1.7637
Durum wheat, precooked, cooked 10 min (Ebly, France)50±516.52.250 (dry)1.7633
Durum wheat, precooked in pouch, reheated in microwave, Ebly Express (Ebly, France)40±515.62.61254.4139
Quick cooking (White Wings, Sydney, NSW, Australia)54±1125.23.11505.2947
Semolina      
Semolina, roasted at 105 °C then gelatinised with water (India)55±9     
Semolina, steamed and gelatinised (India)54±13     
mean of two studies55±16.10.71505.2911
Cracked wheat (bulgur/bourghul)      
Bulgur, boiled (Canada)46     
Bulgur, boiled in 800 mL water 20 min (Canada)46     
Bulgur, boiled 20 min (Canada)46     
Bulgur, boiled 20 min (Canada)53     
mean of four studies48±212.51.71505.2926
COOKIES      
Arrowroot      
Arrowroot (McCormicks’s, Interbare Foods, Toronto, Canada)6312.61.3250.8820
Arrowroot plus (McCormicks’s, Canada)6211.21.2250.8818
Milk Arrowroot™ (Arnotts, Sydney, NSW, Australia)69±712.41.2250.8818
mean of three studies65±212.41.3250.8819
Barquette Abricot (LU, Ris, Orangis, France)71±622.72.1401.4132
Bebe Dobre Rano Chocolate (Opavia/LU, Czech Republic)57±918.82.2501.7633
Bebe Dobre Rano Honey and Hazelnuts (Opavia/LU, Czech Republic)51±917.32.3501.7634
Bebe Jemne Susenky (Opavia/LU, Czech Republic)67±1113.41.3250.8820
COOKIES (DIGESTIVES)      
Digestives (Canada)55     
Digestives (Canada)59±7     
Digestives, Peak Freans (Nabisco Ltd., Toronto, Canada)62     
mean of three studies59±29.41.1250.8816
Digestives, gluten-free (maize starch) (Nutricia Dietary Care Ltd., Redish, Stockport, UK)589.91.1250.8817
Evergreen met Krenten (LU, Netherlands)66±1213.91.4381.3421
Golden Fruit (Griffin’s Foods Ltd., Auckland, New Zealand)77±2513.11.1250.8817
Graham Wafers (Christie Brown & Co., Toronto, Canada)7413.31.2250.8818
Gran’Dia Banana, Oats and Honey (LU, Brazil)28±56.41.5301.0623
Grany en-cas Abricot (LU, France)55±68.81.1301.0616
Grany en-cas Fruits des bois (LU, France)50±57.00.9301.0614
Grany Rush Apricot (LU, Netherlands)62±312.41.3301.0620
Highland Oatmeal™ (Westons biscuits, Sydney, NSW, Australia)55±89.91.2250.8818
Highland Oatcakes (Walker’s Shortbread Ltd., Aberlour-on-Spey, Scotland)578.61.0250.8815
LU P’tit Déjeuner Chocolat (LU, France)42±514.32.3501.7634
LU P’tit Déjeuner Miel et Pépites Chocolat (LU, France)45±515.82.3501.7635
LU P’tit Déjeuner Miel et Pépites Chocolat (LU, France)52±318.22.3501.7635
LU P’tit Déjeuner Miel et Pépites Chocolat (LU, France)49±817.22.3501.7635
mean of three studies49±217.22.3501.7635
Maltmeal wafer (Griffin’s Foods Ltd., New Zealand)50±108.51.1250.8817
Morning Coffee™ (Arnotts, Australia)79±615.01.3250.8819
Nutrigrain Fruits des bois (Kellogg’s, France)57±413.11.5351.2323
Oatmeal (Canada)54±49.21.1250.8817
Oro (Saiwa, Italy)61±919.52.1401.4132
Oro (Saiwa, Italy)67±1721.42.1401.4132
mean of two studies64±320.52.1401.4132
Petit LU Normand (LU, France)51±39.71.3250.8819
Petit LU Roussillon (LU, France)48±48.61.2250.8818
Prince Energie+ (LU, France)73±512.41.1250.8817
Prince fourré chocolat (LU, France)53±5     
Prince fourré chocolat (LU, France)50±5     
mean of two studies52±215.62.0451.5930
Prince Meganana Chocolate (LU, Spain)49±1217.62.4501.7636
Prince Petit Déjeuner Vanille (LU, France and Spain)45±616.22.4501.7636
Rich Tea (Canada)55±410.51.3250.8819
Sablé des Flandres (LU, France)57±108.61.0200.7115
Shortbread (Arnotts, Australia)64±810.21.1250.8816
Shredded Wheatmeal™ (Arnotts, Australia)62±411.21.2250.8818
Snack Right Fruit Slice (97% fat-free) (Arnott’s, Australia)45±38.61.3250.8819
Thé (LU, France)41±76.61.1200.7116
Vanilla Wafers (Christie Brown & Co., Canada)7713.91.2250.8818
Véritable Petit Beurre (LU, France)51±89.21.2250.8818
CRACKERS      
Breton wheat crackers (Dare Foods Ltd., Kitchener, Canada)679.40.9250.8814
Corn Thins, puffed corn cakes, gluten-free (Real Foods, St Peters, NSW, Australia)87±1017.41.3250.8820
Cream Cracker (LU Triumfo, Brazil)65±1111.11.1250.8817
High-calcium cracker (Danone, Malaysia)52±88.81.1250.8817
Jatz™, plain salted craker biscuits (Arnotts, Australia)55±59.41.1250.8817
Puffed Crispbread (Westons, Australia)81±915.41.3250.8819
Puffed rice cakes      
Puffed rice cakes, white (Rice Growers Co-op., Leeton, NSW, Australia)82±1117.21.4250.8821
Rice cakes, Calrose rice (low-amylose) (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia)91±719.11.4250.8821
Rice cakes, Doongara rice (high-amylose) (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia)61±512.81.4250.8821
mean of three studies78±916.41.4250.8821
Rye crispbread      
Rye crispbread (Canada)6310.11.1250.8816
Ryvita™ (Canada)69±1011.01.1250.8816
High-fiber rye crispbread (Ryvita Company Ltd., Poole, Dorset, UK)598.91.0250.8815
Rye crispbread (Ryvita Company Ltd., UK)6311.31.2250.8818
mean of four studies64±210.21.1250.8816
Kavli™ Norwegian Crispbread (Players Biscuits, Sydney, NSW, Australia)71±711.41.1250.8816
Sao™, plain square crackers (Arnotts, Australia)70±911.91.1250.8817
Stoned Wheat Thins (Christie Brown & Co., Canada)6711.41.1250.8817
Water cracker      
Water cracker (Canada)63±911.31.2250.8818
Water cracker (Arnotts, Australia)78±1114.01.2250.8818
mean of two studies71±812.81.2250.8818
Premium Soda Crackers (Christie Brown & Co., Canada)7412.61.1250.8817
Vita-wheat™, original, crispbread (Arnott’s, Australia)55±410.51.3250.8819
DAIRY PRODUCTS AND ALTERNATIVES      
Custard      
No Bake Egg Custard, prepared from powder with whole milk (Nestlé, Sydney, NSW, Australia)35±26.01.11003.5317
Custard, home made from milk, wheat starch, and sugar (Australia)43±107.31.11003.5317
TRIM™, reduced-fat custard (Pauls Ltd., South Brisbane, Qld, Australia)37±45.61.01003.5315
mean of three studies38±26.11.11003.5316
Ice cream, Regular/NS8      
Ice cream, NS (Canada)36±8     
Ice cream (half vanilla, half chocolate) (Italy)57     
Ice cream, NS (USA)62     
Ice cream, chocolate flavored (USA)68±15     
Ice cream (half vanilla, half chocolate) (Italy)80     
mean of five studies61±77.90.9501.7613
Ice cream, Reduced- or Low-fat      
Ice cream, low-fat, vanilla, ‘Light’ (Peter’s, Sydney, NSW, Australia)50±83.00.4501.766
Ice-cream, low-fat (1.2 % fat), Prestige Light rich vanilla (Norco, Lismore, NSW, Australia)647±54.70.7501.7610
Ice-cream, low-fat (1.4% fat), Prestige Light traditional toffee (Norco, Australia)637±45.20.9501.7614
Ice-cream, reduced-fat (7.1 % fat), Prestige golden macadamia (Norco, Australia)639±34.70.8501.7612
Ice cream, Premium (high-fat)      
Ice cream, premium, Ultra chocolate, 15% fat (Sara Lee, Gosford, NSW, Australia)37±33.30.6501.769
Ice cream, premium, French vanilla, 16% fat (Sara Lee, Australia)38±33.40.6501.769
Milk, full-fat      
Full-fat (Italy)11     
Full-fat (3% fat, Skånemejerier, Malmö, Sweden)621     
Full-fat (Italy)24     
Full-fat cow’s milk, fresh (Dairy Farmers, Sydney, NSW, Australia)31±2     
Full-fat (Canada)34±6     
Full-fat (USA)40     
mean of five studies27±43.20.82508.8212
Fermented cow’s milk (ropy milk, långfil, 3% fat) (Arla, Gävle, Sweden)611     
Fermented cow’s milk (filmjölk, 3% fat) (Skånemejerier, Malmö, Sweden)611     
mean of two foods11     
Milk, full-fat, plus bran      
Full-fat + 20g wheat bran (Italy)25     
Full-fat + 20g wheat bran (Italy)28     
mean of two studies27±23.20.82508.8212
Milk, skim (Canada)32±54.20.92508.8213
Milk, condensed, sweetened (Nestlé, Sydney, NSW, Australia)61±616.51.8508.8227
Milk, low-fat, chocolate, with aspartame, Lite White™ (Dairy Farmers, Australia)24±63.61.02508.8215
Milk, low-fat, chocolate, with sugar, Lite White™ (Dairy Farmers, Australia)34±48.81.72508.8226
Mousse, reduced-fat, prepared from commerical mousse mix with water      
Butterscotch, 1.9% fat (Nestlé, Australia)36±43.60.7501.7610
Chocolate, 2% fat (Nestlé, Australia)31±43.40.7501.7611
Hazelnut, 2.4% fat (Nestlé, Australia)36±43.60.7501.7610
Mango, 1.8% fat (Nestlé, Australia)33±53.60.7501.7611
Mixed berry, 2.2% fat (Nestlé, Australia)36±53.60.7501.7610
Strawberry, 2.3% fat (Nestlé, Australia)32±33.20.7501.7610
mean of six foods34±13.40.7501.7610
Pudding      
instant, chocolate, made from powder and whole milk (White Wings, Sydney, NSW, Australia)47±47.51.11003.5316
instant, vanilla, made from powder and whole milk (White Wings, Australia)40±46.41.11003.5316
mean of two foods44±47.01.11003.5316
Yoghurt      
Yoghurt, type NS8 (Canada)36±43.20.62007.059
Low-fat yoghurt      
Low-fat, fruit, aspartame, Ski™ (Dairy Farmers, Australia)14±41.80.92007.0513
Low-fat, fruit, sugar, Ski™ (Dairy Farmers, Australia)33±710.22.12007.0531
Low-fat (0.9%), fruit, wild strawberry (Ski d’lite™, Dairy Farmers, Australia)31±149.32.02007.0530
Non-fat yoghurt, sweetened with acesulfame K and Splenda      
Diet Vaalia™, exotic fruits (Pauls Ltd., Australia)623±23.71.12007.0516
Diet Vaalia™, mango (Pauls Ltd., Australia)623±23.20.92007.0514
Diet Vaalia™, mixed berry (Pauls Ltd., Australia)625±33.30.92007.0513
Diet Vaalia™, strawberry (Pauls Ltd., Australia)623±23.00.92007.0513
Diet Vaalia™, vanilla (Pauls Ltd, Australia)623±23.00.92007.0513
mean of five foods24±13.40.92007.0514
Reduced-fat yoghurt      
Reduced-fat, Vaalia™, apricot & mango (Pauls Ltd., Australia)626±47.82.02007.0530
Reduced-fat, Vaalia™, french vanilla (Pauls Ltd., Australia)626±42.60.72007.0510
Reduced-fat, Extra-Lite™, strawberry (Pauls Ltd., Australia)628±49.22.22007.0533
mean of three foods27±16.51.62007.0524
Yoghurt drink, reduced-fat, Vaalia™, tropical passionfruit (Pauls Ltd., Australia)638±411.01.92007.0529
Soy-based dairy product alternatives      
Soy milks (containing maltodextrin)      
Soy milk, full-fat (3%), 0 mg calcium, Original (So Natural Foods, Taren Point, NSW, Australia)644±57.51.12508.8217
Soy milk, full-fat (3%), 120 mg calcium, Calciforte (So Natural Foods, Australia)636±46.51.22508.8218
Soy milk, reduced-fat (1.5%), 120 mg calcium, Light (So Natural Foods, Australia)644±37.51.12508.8217
Soy milk drinks      
Soy smoothie drink, banana, 1% fat (So Natural Foods, Australia)630±36.61.52508.8222
Soy smoothie drink, chocolate hazelnut, 1% fat (So Natural Foods, Australia)634±38.51.72508.8225
mean of two drinks32±27.41.52508.8223
Up & Go™, cocoa malt flavor (soy milk, rice cereal liquid breakfast)6 (Sanitarium, Berkeley Vale, NSW, Australia)43±511.21.72508.8226
Up & Go™, original malt flavor (soy milk, rice cereal liquid breakfast)6 (Sanitarium, Australia)46±511.01.62508.8224
mean of two drinks45±211.31.72508.8225
Xpress™, chocolate (soy bean, cereal and legume extract drink with fructose)6 (So Natural Foods, Australia)39±213.32.32508.8234
Soy yoghurt      
Soy yoghurt, peach and mango, 2% fat, sugar (So Natural Foods, Australia)650±313.01.72007.0526
Tofu-based frozen dessert, chocolate with high-fructose (24%) corn syrup (USA)115±1410.40.6501.769
FRUIT AND FRUIT PRODUCTS      
Apples, raw      
Apple, NS8 (Denmark)283.60.91204.2313
Apple, Braeburn (New Zealand)632±44.20.91204.2313
Apple, NS8 (Canada)345.41.11204.2316
Apple, Golden Delicious (Canada)39±36.21.11204.2316
Apple, NS8 (USA)406.41.11204.2316
Apple, NS8 (Italy)445.70.91204.2313
mean of six studies38±25.71.01204.2315
Apple juice      
Apple juice, unsweetened, reconstituted (Berrivale Orchards Ltd, Berri, SA, Australia)39±59.81.72508.8225
Apple juice, unsweetened (USA)4011.61.92508.8229
Apple juice, unsweetened (Allens, Toronto, Canada)4112.32.02508.8230
mean of three studies40±111.21.92508.8228
Apple, dried (Australia)29±59.92.3602.1234
Apricots      
Apricots, raw, NS8 (Italy)575.10.61204.239
Apricots, canned in light syrup (Riviera, Aliments Caneast Foods, Montreal, Canada )6412.21.31204.2319
Apricots, dried (Australia)30±78.11.8602.1227
Apricots, dried (Wasco foods, Montreal, Canada)329.62.0602.1230
mean of two studies31±18.71.9602.1228
Apricot fruit bar, pureed dried apricot filling in wholemeal pastry (Mother Earth, Auckland, New Zealand)50±817.02.3501.7634
Apricot fruit spread, reduced sugar (Glen Ewin Jams, Para Hills, SA, Australia)55±77.20.9301.0613
Apricot Fruity Bitz™, vitamin and mineral enriched dried fruit snack (Blackmores Ltd., Balgowlah, NSW, Australia)42±35.00.8150.5312
Banana, raw      
Banana (Canada)4611.51.71204.2325
Banana (Italy)5813.31.51204.2323
Banana (Canada)5814.51.71204.2325
Banana (Canada)62±915.51.71204.2325
Banana (South Africa)70±516.11.51204.2323
Banana, ripe (all yellow) (USA)5112.81.71204.2325
Banana, under-ripe (Denmark)306.31.41204.2321
Banana, slightly under-ripe (yellow with green sections) (USA)4210.51.71204.2325
Banana, over-ripe (yellow flecked with brown) (USA)4812.01.71204.2325
Banana, over-ripe (Denmark)5210.41.31204.2320
mean of 10 studies52±412.51.61204.2324
Banana, processed fruit fingers, Heinz Kidz™ (H J Heinz, Malvern, Vic, Australia)61±1112.21.3301.0620
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), raw (Australia)66818.41.81204.2327
Cherries, raw, NS8 (Canada)222.60.81204.2312
Chico (Zapota zapotilla coville), raw (Philippines)64011.61.91204.2329
Cranberry juice      
Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray, Melbourne, Vic, Australia)52±316.12.12508.8231
Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray Inc., Lakeville-Middleboro, MA, USA)68±323.82.32508.8235
Cranberry juice drink, Ocean Spray® (Gerber Ltd., Bridgewater, Somerset, UK)56±416.21.92508.8229
Custard apple, raw, flesh only (Australia)54±210.31.31204.2319
Dates, dried (Australia)103±2141.22.7602.1240
Figs, dried, tenderised, Dessert Maid brand (Ernest Hall & Sons, Sydney, NSW, Australia)61±615.91.7602.1226
Fruit Cocktail, canned (Delmonte Canadian Canners Ltd., Hamilton, Canada)558.81.11204.2316
Grapefruit, raw (Canada)252.80.71204.2311
Grapefruit juice, unsweetened (Sunpac, Toronto, Canada)489.61.32508.8220
Grapes, raw      
Grapes, NS8(Canada)437.31.11204.2317
Grapes, NS8 (Italy)499.31.31204.2319
mean of two studies46±38.31.21204.2318
Grapes, black, Waltham Cross (Australia)5910.61.21204.2318
Kiwi fruit, raw      
Kiwi fruit, Hayward (New Zealand)647±45.60.81204.2312
Kiwi fruit (Australia)658±77.00.81204.2312
mean of two studies53±66.40.81204.2312
Lychee, canned in syrup and drained, Narcissus brand (China)79±815.81.31204.2320
Mango, raw      
Mango (Mangifera indica) (Philippines)6418.21.31204.2320
Mango (Mangifera indica) (Australia)651±37.71.01204.2315
Mango, ripe (Mangifera indica) (India)1160±169.01.01204.2315
mean of three studies51±58.71.11204.2317
Mango, low-fat frozen fruit dessert, Frutia™ (Weis Frozen Foods, Toowong, Qld, Australia)42±39.71.51003.5323
Marmalade, orange (Australia)48±99.61.3301.0620
Oranges, raw      
Oranges, NS8 (Denmark)313.40.71204.2311
Oranges, NS8 (South Africa)33±63.30.71204.2310
Oranges, NS8 (Canada)40±34.40.71204.2311
Oranges, NS8 (Italy)485.30.71204.2311
Oranges (Sunkist, Van Nuys, CA, USA)485.30.71204.2311
Oranges NS8 (Canada)515.60.71204.2311
mean of six studies42±34.60.71204.2311
Orange juice      
Orange Juice (Canada)46±612.01.72508.8226
Orange juice, unsweetened, reconstituted concentrate, Quelch brand (Berri Ltd., Australia)53±69.51.22508.8218
Orange juice, reconstituted from frozen concentrate (USA)57±614.81.72508.8226
mean of three studies52±312.01.52508.8223
Paw paw/papaya, raw      
Paw paw (Carica papaya) (Australia)656±64.50.51204.238
Paw paw (papaya), ripe (India)1160±1617.41.91204.2329
Papaya (Carica papaya) (Philippines)6609.01.01204.2315
mean of three studies59±110.01.11204.2317
Peaches      
Peach, raw (Canada)283.60.91204.2313
Peach, raw (Italy)564.50.51204.238
mean of two studies42±144.60.71204.2311
Peach, canned in natural juice (Goulburn Valley, Ardmona Foods, Mooroopna, Vic, Australia)30±43.30.71204.2311
Peach, canned in natural juice (SPC Ltd., Shepparton, Vic, Australia)45±65.00.71204.2311
mean of two studies38±84.20.71204.2311
Peach, canned in heavy syrup (Letona Foods, Hawthorn East, Vic, Australia)58±118.71.01204.2315
Peach, canned in light syrup (Delmonte, Canadian Canners Ltd.)529.41.21204.2318
Peach, canned in reduced-sugar syrup, SPC Lite (SPC Ltd., Australia)62±910.51.11204.2317
Pears      
Pear, raw, NS8 (Canada)334.30.91204.2313
Pear, Winter Nellis, raw (New Zealand)634±44.10.81204.2312
Pear, Bartlett, raw (Canada)413.30.51204.238
Pear, raw, NS8 (Italy)424.60.71204.2311
mean of four studies38±24.20.71204.2311
Pear halves, canned in reduced-sugar syrup, SPC Lite (SPC Ltd., Australia)25±63.50.91204.2314
Pear halves, canned in natural juice (SPC Ltd., Australia)43±155.60.91204.2313
Pear, canned in pear juice, Bartlett (Delmonte, Canadian Canners Ltd.)444.80.71204.2311
Pineapple      
Pineapple, raw (Australia)666±76.60.71204.2310
Pineapple (Ananas comosus), raw (Philippines)6518.21.11204.2316
mean of two studies59±87.70.91204.2313
Pineapple juice, unsweetened (Dole Packaged Foods, Toronto, Canada)4615.62.32508.8234
Plums      
Plum, raw, NS8 (Canada)243.40.91204.2314
Plum, raw, NS8 (Italy)535.80.71204.2311
mean of two studies39±154.70.81204.2312
Prunes, pitted (Sunsweet Growers Inc., Yuba City, CA, USA)29±49.62.2602.1233
Raisins (Canada)64±1128.22.9602.1244
Rockmelon/Cantaloupe, raw (Australia)665±93.90.41204.236
Strawberries, fresh, raw (Sydney, NSW, Australia)640±71.20.21204.233
Strawberry jam51±1010.21.3301.0620
Strawberry processed fruit bars, Real Fruit Bars (Uncle Toby’s, Australia)90±1223.41.7301.0626
Sultanas56±1125.23.0602.1245
Tomato juice, no added sugar (Berri Ltd., Berri, SA, Australia)638±43.40.62508.829
Tropical Fruity Bitz™, vitamin and mineral enriched dried fruit snack (Blackmores Ltd., Australia)41±34.50.7150.5311
Vitari, wild berry, non-dairy, frozen fruit dessert (Nestlé, Sydney, NSW, Australia)59±812.41.41003.5321
Watermelon, raw (Australia)672±134.30.41204.236
Wild Berry Fruity Bitz™, vitamin and mineral enriched dried fruit snack (Blackmores Ltd., Australia)35±44.20.8150.5312
INFANT FORMULA AND WEANING FOODS      
Formula      
Infasoy™, soy-based, milk-free (Wyeth Nutritionals, Baulkham Hills, NSW, Australia)655±63.80.5100 mL3.537
Karicare™ gold starter formula with omega plsu LCP oils (Nutricia, Auckland, New Zealand)635±52.50.5100 mL3.537
Nan-1™ infant formula with iron (Nestlé, Sydney, NSW, Australia)630±62.30.5100 mL3.538
S-26™ infant formula (Wyeth Nutritionals, Australia)636±62.60.5100 mL3.537
Weaning Foods      
Farex™ baby rice (Heinz Wattie’s Ltd., Malvern, Vic, Australia)695±135.70.4873.076
Robinsons First Tastes from 4 months (Nutricia, Wells, UK)      
Apple, apricot and banana cereal656±87.30.9752.6513
Creamed porridge659±85.40.6752.659
Rice pudding659±66.50.7752.6511
Heinz for Baby from 4 months (Heinz Wattie’s Ltd., Australia)      
Chicken and noodles with vegetables, strained667±114.80.51204.237
Sweetcorn and rice665±139.71.01204.2315
LEGUMES AND NUTS      
Baked Beans      
Baked Beans, canned (Canada)40±3     
Baked Beans, canned haricot/navy beans in tomato sauce (Libby, McNeill & Libby, Chatham, Canada)56     
mean of two studies48±87.21.01505.2915
Beans, dried, boiled      
Beans, dried, type NS8 (Italy)3610.82.01505.2930
Beans, dried, type NS8 (Italy)206.02.01505.2930
mean of two studies29±98.72.01505.2930
Blackeyed beans/peas (Cowpeas), boiled      
Blackeyed beans (Canada)5015.02.01505.2930
Blackeyed beans (Canada)33±49.92.01505.2930
mean of two studies42±912.62.01505.2930
Butter Beans      
Butter beans (South Africa)28±75.61.31505.2920
Butter beans, dried, cooked 1.25 h (South Africa)29±85.81.31505.2920
Butter beans (Canada)36±47.21.31505.2920
mean of three studies31±36.21.31505.2920
Butter beans, dried, boiled + 5g sucrose (South Africa)30±26.01.31505.2920
Butter beans, dried, boiled + 10g sucrose (South Africa)31±26.21.31505.2920
Butter beans, dried, boiled + 15g sucrose (South Africa)54±410.81.31505.2920
Chickpeas (Garbanzo beans, Bengal gram), boiled      
Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum Linn), dried, soaked, boiled 35 min (Philippines)103.02.01505.2930
Chickpeas, dried, boiled (Canada)319.32.01505.2930
Chickpeas (Canada)339.92.01505.2930
Chickpeas (Canada)36±510.82.01505.2930
mean of four studies28±68.42.01505.2930
Chickpeas, canned in brine (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Toronto, Canada)429.21.51505.2922
Chickpeas, curry, canned (Canasia Foods Ltd., Scarborough, Canada)416.61.11505.2916
Haricot/Navy beans      
Haricot/Navy beans, pressure cooked at 15 psi for 25 min (King Grains, Toronto, Canada)299.62.21505.2933
Haricot/Navy beans, dried, boiled (Canada)309.02.01505.2930
Haricot/Navy beans, boiled (Canada)31±69.32.01505.2930
Haricot/Navy beans (King Grains, Canada)3911.72.01505.2930
Haricot/Navy beans, pressure cooked at15 psi for 25 min (King Grains, Canada)5919.52.21505.2933
mean of five studies38±611.82.11505.2931
Kidney Beans      
Kidney/white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Linn), soaked, boiled 17 min (Philippines)133.31.71505.2925
Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) (India)194.81.71505.2925
Kidney beans (USA)5235.81.71505.2925
Kidney beans, dried, boiled (France)23±15.81.71505.2925
Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), red, soaked 20 min, boiled 70 min (Sweden)256.31.71505.2925
Kidney beans (Canada)29±87.31.71505.2925
Kidney beans, dried, boiled (Canada)4210.51.71505.2925
Kidney beans (Canada)4611.51.71505.2925
mean of eight studies28±47.01.71505.2925
Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) – autoclaved348.51.71505.2925
Kidney beans, canned (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada)528.81.11505.2917
Kidney beans, dried, soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h (India)1170±1117.51.71505.2925
Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Linn), soaked overnight, cooked 45 min (Philippines)205.01.71505.2925
Lentils, type NS8      
Lentils, type NS (USA)28     
Lentils, type NS (Canada)29±3     
mean of two studies29±15.21.21505.2918
Lentils, green      
Lentils, green, dried, boiled (Canada)224.01.21505.2918
Lentils, green, dried, boiled (France)30±155.41.21505.2918
Lentils, green, dried, boiled (Australia)37±35.20.91505.2914
mean of three studies30±45.11.11505.2917
Lentils, green, canned in brine (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada)528.81.11505.2917
Lentils, red      
Lentils, red, dried, boiled (Canada)183.21.21505.2918
Lentils, red, dried, boiled (Canada)213.81.21505.2918
Lentils, red, dried, boiled (Canada)315.61.21505.2918
Lentils, red, dried, boiled (Canada)325.81.21505.2918
mean of four studies26±44.71.21505.2918
Lima beans, baby, frozen, reheated in microwave oven (York, Canada Packers, Toronto, Canada)329.62.01505.2930
Marrowfat peas      
Marrowfat peas, dried, boiled (USA)31     
Marrowfat peas, dried, boiled (Canada)47±3     
mean of two studies39±87.41.31505.2919
Mung beans      
Mung bean (Phaseolus areus Roxb), soaked, boiled 20 min (Philippines)315.31.11505.2917
Mung bean, fried (Australia)53±8     
Mung bean, germinated (Australia)25±44.31.11505.2917
Mung bean, pressure cooked (Australia)42±57.11.11505.2917
Peas, dried, boiled (Australia)222.00.61505.299
Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan Linn. Huth.), soaked, boiled 45 min (Philippines)224.41.31505.2920
Pinto beans      
Pinto beans, dried, boiled (Canada)3910.11.71505.2926
Pinto beans, canned in brine (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada)459.91.51505.2922
Romano beans (Canada)468.31.21505.2918
Soya beans      
Soya beans, dried, boiled (Canada)15±50.90.41505.296
Soya beans, dried, boiled (Australia)20±31.20.41505.296
mean of two studies18±31.10.41505.296
Soya beans, canned (Canada)14±20.80.41505.296
Split peas, yellow, boiled 20 min (Nupack, Mississauga, Canada)326.11.31505.2919
MEAL REPLACEMENT PRODUCTS      
Hazelnut & Apricot bar (Dietworks, South Yarra, Vic, Australia)42±79.21.5501.7622
L.E.A.N™ products (Usana Inc., Salt Lake City, UT, US)      
L.E.A.N Fibergy™ bar, Harvest Oat45±413.11.9501.7629
Nutrimeal™, drink powder, Dutch Chocolate26±33.40.92508.8213
L.E.A.N (Life long) Nutribar™, Peanut Crunch30±45.71.3401.4119
L.E.A.N (Life long) Nutribar™, Chocolate Crunch32±46.11.3401.4119
mean of two Nutri bars31±15.91.3401.4119
Worldwide Sport Nutrition reduced-carbohydrate products (2000 formulations)      
(Worldwide Sport Nutritional Supplements Inc., Largo, FL, US)      
Designer chocolate, sugar-free614±33.11.5351.2322
Burn-it™ bars      
Chocolate deluxe629±32.30.5501.768
Peanut butter623±31.40.4501.766
Pure-protein™ bars      
Chewy choc-chip630±44.20.9802.8214
Chocolate deluxe638±44.90.9802.8213
Peanut butter622±42.00.6802.829
Strawberry shortcake643±45.60.9802.8213
White chocolate mousse640±46.01.0802.8215
Pure-protein™ cookies      
Choc-chip cookie dough625±32.80.7551.9411
Coconut642±53.80.6551.949
Peanut butter637±73.30.6551.949
Ultra pure-protein™ shakes      
Cappuccino47±60.50.12508.821
Frosty chocolate37±61.10.22508.823
Strawberry shortcake42±40.40.12508.821
Vanilla ice cream32±51.00.22508.823
MIXED MEALS AND CONVENIENCE FOODS      
Chicken nuggets, frozen, reheated in microwave oven 5 min (Savings, Grocery Holdings, Tooronga, Vic, Australia)46±47.41.11003.5316
Fish Fingers (Canada)38±67.21.31003.5319
Greek lentil stew with a bread roll, home made (Australia)40±514.82.536012.7037
Kugel (Polish dish containing egg noodles, sugar, cheese and raisins) (Israel)65±631.23.21505.2948
Lean Cuisine™, French style chicken with rice, reheated (Nestlé, Sydney, NSW, Australia)636±624.54.540014.1168
Pies, beef, party size (Farmland, Grocery Holdings, Australia)45±612.21.81003.5327
Pizza      
Pizza, cheese (Pillsbury Canada Ltd., Toronto, Canada)6016.21.81003.5327
Pizza, plain baked dough, served with parmesan cheese and tomato sauce (Italy)8021.61.81003.5327
Pizza, Super Supreme, pan (11.4% fat) (Pizza Hut, Sydney, NSW, Australia)36±68.61.61003.5324
Pizza, Super Supreme, thin and crispy (13.2 % fat) (Pizza Hut, Australia)30±46.61.51003.5322
Pizza, Vegetarian Supreme, thin and crispy (7.8 % fat) (Pizza Hut, Australia)649±612.31.71003.5325
Sausages, NS8 (Canada)28±60.80.21003.533
Sirloin chop with mixed vegetables and mashed potato, home made (Australia)66±1235.03.536012.7053
Spaghetti bolognaise, home made (Australia)52±925.03.236012.7048
Stirfried vegetables with chicken and boiled white rice, home made (Australia)73±1754.85.036012.7075
Sushi      
Sushi, salmon (from ‘I Love Sushi’ chain store, Sydney, NSW, Australia)648±817.32.41003.5336
Sushi, roasted sea algae, vinegar and rice (Japan)5520.42.51003.5337
Mean of two studies52±419.22.51003.5337
White boiled rice, grilled beefburger, cheese, and butter (France)2713.53.344015.5250
White boiled rice, grilled beefburger, cheese and butter (France)2211.03.344015.5250
Mean in two groups of subjects25±212.53.344015.5250
White bread with toppings      
White wheat flour bread, butter, cheese, regular cow’s milk and fresh cucumber (Sweden)65537.44.52007.0568
White wheat flour bread, butter, yoghurt and pickled cucumber (Sweden)63910.91.92007.0528
White bread with butter (Canada)5928.33.21003.5348
White bread with skim milk cheese (Canada)5525.93.11003.5347
White bread with butter and skim milk cheese (Canada)6223.62.51003.5338
White/wholemeal wheat bread with peanut butter (Canada)5122.42.91003.5344
White/wholemeal wheat bread with peanut butter (Canada)6729.52.91003.5344
mean of two studies59±826.02.91003.5344
NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT PRODUCTS      
Choicedm™, vanilla (Mead Johnson Nutritionals, Evansville, IN, US)23±45.51.6237mL8.3624
Enercal Plus™, made from powder (Wyeth-Ayerst International Inc., Madison, NJ, US)61±1324.42.7237mL8.3640
Ensure™ (Abbott Australasia, Kurnell, NSW, Australia)50±820.02.7237mL8.3640
Ensure™, vanilla (Abbott Australasia)48±316.32.3250mL8.8234
Ensure™ bar, chocolate fudge brownie (Abbott Australasia)43±38.61.3381.3420
Ensure Plus™, vanilla (Abbott Australasia)40±418.83.1237mL8.3647
Ensure Pudding™, old fashioned vanilla (Abbott Laboratories Inc., Ashland, OH, USA)36±49.41.71133.9926
Glucerna™, vanilla (Abbott Laboratories Inc., USA)631±27.11.5237mL8.3623
Jevity™ (Abbott Australasia)48±317.32.4237mL8.3636
Resource Diabetic™, French vanilla (Novartis Nutrition Corp., Young America, MN, USA)634±37.81.5237mL8.3623
Resource Diabetic™, Swiss chocolate (Novartis, Auckland, New Zealand)16±46.62.7237mL8.3641
Resource™ thickened orange juice, honey consistency (Novartis, New Zealand)47±918.32.6237mL8.3639
Resource™ thickened orange juice, nectar consistency (Novartis, New Zealand)54±719.42.4237mL8.3636
Resource™ fruit beverage, peach flavour (Novartis, New Zealand)40±816.42.7237mL8.3641
Sustagen™, Dutch Chocolate (Mead Johnson, Bristol Myers Squibb, Rydalmere, NSW, Australia)31±412.72.7250mL8.8241
Sustagen™ Hospital with extra fiber, drink made from powdered mix (Mead Johnson, Australia)33±414.52.9250mL8.8244
Sustagen™ Instant Pudding, vanilla, made from powdered mix (Mead Johnson, Australia)27±312.73.12508.8247
Ultracal™ with fiber (Mead Johnson, Evansville, IN, USA)4011.61.9237 mL8.3629
PASTA and NOODLES      
Capellini (Primo Foods Ltd., Toronto, Canada)4520.33.01806.3545
Corn pasta, gluten-free (Orgran Natural Foods, Carrum Downs, Vic, Australia)78±1032.82.81806.3542
Fettucine, egg      
Fettucine, egg32±414.73.11806.3546
Fettucine, egg (Mother Earth Fine Foods, Rowville, Vic, Australia)47±621.63.11806.3546
mean of two studies40±818.43.11806.3546
Gluten-free pasta, maize starch, boiled 8 min (UK)5422.72.81806.3542
Gnocchi, NS8 (Latina, Pillsbury Australia Ltd., Mt. Waverley, Vic, Australia)68±932.63.21806.3548
Instant noodles      
Instant ‘two-minute’ noodles, Maggi® (Nestlé, Sydney, NSW, Australia)46±5     
Instant ‘two-minute’ noodles, Maggi® (Nestlé, Auckland, New Zealand)48±8     
Instant noodles (Mr Noodle, Vancouver, Canada)47     
mean of three studies47±118.82.71806.3540
Linguine      
Thick, durum wheat, white, fresh (Sweden)4320.63.21806.3548
Thick, fresh, durum wheat flour, 0.6% w/w monoglycerides, boiled 8 min (Sweden)4823.03.21806.3548
mean of two studies46±322.13.21806.3548
Thin, durum wheat (Sweden)4923.53.21806.3548
Thin, fresh, durum wheat flour, 0.6% w/w monoglycerides, boiled 3 min (Sweden)6129.33.21806.3548
Thin, fresh, durum wheat with 39% w/w egg, (Sweden)4518.52.71806.3541
Thin, fresh, with 0.6% w/w monoglycerides and 30% w/w egg, boiled 3 min (Sweden)5321.72.71806.3541
mean of four studies52±323.43.01806.3545
Mung bean noodles      
Lungkow beanthread noodles (National Cereals, Oils & Foodstuffs, Qingdao & Guangdong, China)2611.73.01806.3545
Mung bean noodles (Longkou beanthread), dried, boiled (Yantai cereals, China)39±917.63.01806.3545
mean of two studies33±7     
Macaroni      
Macaroni, plain, boiled 5 min (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada)4522.13.31806.3549
Macaroni, plain, boiled (Turkey)4823.53.31806.3549
mean of two studies47±222.63.21806.3548
Macaroni and Cheese, boxed (Kraft General Foods Canada Inc., Don Mills, Ontario)6432.63.41806.3551
Ravioli, durum wheat flour, meat filled, boiled (Australia)39±114.82.51806.3538
Rice noodles/pasta      
Rice noodles, dried, boiled (Thai World, Bangkok, Thailand)61±623.82.61806.3539
Rice noodles, freshly made, boiled (Sydney, NSW, Australia)40±415.62.61806.3539
Rice pasta, brown, boiled 16 min (Rice Grower’s Co-op., Leeton, NSW, Australia)92±835.02.51806.3538
Rice and maize pasta, gluten-free, Ris’O’Mais (Orgran Foods, Carrum Downs, Vic, Australia)76±637.23.31806.3549
Rice vermicelli, Kongmoon (National Cereals, Oils & Foodstuffs, China)5822.62.61806.3539
Spaghetti      
Spaghetti, gluten-free, rice and split pea, canned in tomato sauce (Orgran Foods, Australia)68±918.41.82207.7627
Spaghetti, protein enriched, boiled 7 min (Catelli Plus, Catelli Ltd., Montreal, Canada)2714.03.51806.3552
Spaghetti, white, boiled 5 min      
Boiled 5 min (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada)3215.43.21806.3548
Boiled 5 min (Canada)3416.33.21806.3548
Boiled 5 min (Canada)4019.23.21806.3548
Boiled 5 min (Middle East)4421.13.21806.3548
mean of four studies38±318.23.21806.3548
Spaghetti, white or type NS, boiled 10-15 min      
White, durum wheat, boiled 10 min in salty water (Barilla, Parma, Italy)125827.83.21806.3548
White, durum wheat flour, boiled 12 min (Starhushålls, Kungsörnen AB, Järna, Sweden)4722.63.21806.3548
White, durum wheat flour, 0.6% w/w monoglycerides, boiled 12 min (Sweden)5325.43.21806.3548
Boiled 15 min (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada)3215.43.21806.3548
Boiled 15 min (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada)3617.33.21806.3548
Boiled 15 min (Canada)4119.73.21806.3548
White, boiled 15 min in salted water (Unico, Concord, Canada)44±321.13.21806.3548
mean of seven studies44±321.13.21806.3548
Spaghetti, white or type NS8, boiled 20 min      
White, durum wheat, boiled 20 min (Australia)58±725.52.91806.3544
Durum wheat, boiled 20 min (USA)64±1527.52.91806.3543
mean of two studies61±326.82.91806.3544
Spaghetti, white, boiled      
White (Denmark)3315.83.21806.3548
White, durum wheat (Catelli Ltd, Montreal, Canada)3416.33.21806.3548
White (Australia)3816.72.91806.3544
White (Canada)4220.23.21806.3548
White (Canada)4823.03.21806.3548
White (Vetta, Greens Foods, Glendenning, NSW, Australia)49±721.62.91806.3544
White (Canada)50±824.03.21806.3548
mean of seven studies42±319.73.11806.3547
Spaghetti, white, durum wheat semolina (Panzani, Marseilles, France)      
Boiled in 0.7% salted water for 11 min59±1528.33.21806.3548
Boiled in 0.7% salted water for 16.5 min65±1531.23.21806.3548
Boiled in 0.7% salted water for 22 min46±1022.13.21806.3548
mean of three cooking times57±627.43.21806.3548
Spaghetti, wholemeal, boiled      
Wholemeal (USA)3214.12.91806.3544
Wholemeal (Canada)42±416.82.71806.3540
mean of two studies37±515.52.81806.3542
Spirali, durum wheat, white, boiled to al denté texture (Vetta, Australia)43±1018.92.91806.3544
Split pea and soya pasta shells, gluten-free (Orgran Foods, Australia)29±69.02.11806.3531
Star Pastina, white, boiled 5 minutes (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada)3818.23.21806.3548
Tortellini, cheese (Stouffer, Nestlé, Don Mills, Canada)5010.51.41806.3521
Udon noodles, plain, reheated 5 min (Fantastic, Windsor Gardens, SA, Australia)662±829.83.21806.3548
Vermicelli, white, boiled (Australia)35±715.42.91806.3544
SNACK FOODS AND CONFECTIONERY      
Burger Rings™, barbeque-flavored (Smith’s Snack Food Co., Chatswood, NSW, Australia)90±1627.92.1501.7631
Chocolate, milk, plain      
Chocolate, milk, plain with sucrose (Belgium)634±57.51.5501.7622
Chocolate, milk (Cadbury’s Confectionery, Ringwood, Vic, Australia)49±614.72.0501.7630
Chocolate, milk, Dove® (Mars Confectionery, Ballarat, Vic, Australia)45±813.52.0501.7630
Chocolate, milk (Nestlé, Sydney, NSW, Australia)42±813.02.1501.7631
mean of four studies43±312.01.9501.7628
Chocolate, milk, plain, low-sugar with maltitol (Belgium)635±167.71.5501.7622
Chocolate, white, Milky Bar® (Nestlé, Australia)44±612.81.9501.7629
Corn chips      
Corn chips, plain, salted (Doritos™ original, Smith’s Snack Food Co., Australia, 1998)42±410.51.7501.7625
Corn chips, plain, salted (Doritos™ original, Smith’s Snack Food Co., Australia, 1985)7218.01.7501.7625
Nachips™ (Old El Paso Foods Co., Canada)7421.51.9501.7629
mean of three studies63±1016.41.7501.7626
Fruit Bars      
Apricot filled fruit bar (pureed dried apricot filling in wholemeal pastry) (Mother Earth, Auckland, New Zealand)50±817.02.3501.7634
Heinz Kidz™ Fruit Fingers, banana (HJ Heinz, Malvern, Vic, Australia)61±1112.21.3301.0620
Real Fruit Bars, strawberry (Uncle Toby’s, Wahgunyah, Vic, Australia)90±1223.41.7301.0626
Roll-Ups®, processed fruit snack (Uncle Toby’s, Australia)99±1224.81.7301.0625
Fruity Bitz™, vitamin and mineral enriched dried fruit snacks      
Fruity Bitz™, apricot (Blackmores Ltd., Balgowlah, NSW, Australia)42±35.00.8150.5312
Fruity Bitz™, berry (Blackmores Ltd., Australia)35±44.20.8150.5312
Fruity Bitz™, tropical (Blackmores Ltd., Australia)41±34.50.7150.5311
mean of three flavours39±24.70.8150.5312
Jelly beans      
Jelly beans, assorted colors (Allen’s, Nestle, Sydney, NSW, Australia)80±8     
Jelly beans, assorted colors (Savings, Grocery Holdings, Tooronga, Vic, Australia)76±6     
mean of two studies78±221.81.9301.0628
Kudos Whole Grain Bars, chocolate chip (M & M/Mars, Hackettstown, NJ, USA)62±819.82.1501.7632
Life Savers®, peppermint candy (Nestlé, Australia)70±621.02.0301.0630
M & M’s®, peanut (Mars Confectionery, Australia)33±35.61.1301.0617
Mars Bar®      
Mars Bar® (Mars Confectionery, Australia)62±824.82.7602.1240
Mars Bar® (M&M/Mars, USA)68±1227.22.7602.1240
mean of two studies65±326.02.7602.1240
Muesli bar containing dried fruit (Uncle Toby’s, Australia)61±712.81.4301.0621
Nougat, Jijona (La Fama, Spain)323.80.8301.0612
Nutella®, chocolate hazelnut spread (Ferrero Australia, Milson’s Point, NSW, Australia)33±44.00.8200.7112
Nuts      
Cashew nuts, salted (Coles Supermarkets, Australia)622±52.90.9501.7613
Peanuts      
Peanuts, crushed (South Africa)67±40.30.3501.764
Peanuts (Canada)613±60.90.5501.767
Peanuts (Mexico)6231.60.5501.767
mean of three studies14±80.80.4501.766
Popcorn      
Popcorn, plain, cooked in microwave oven (Green’s Foods, Glendenning, NSW, Australia)55±76.10.7200.7111
Popcorn, plain, cooked in microwave oven (Uncle Toby’s, Australia)899.80.7200.7111
mean of two studies72±177.90.7200.7111
Pop Tarts™, double choc (Kellogg’s, Pagewood, NSW, Australia)70±224.52.3501.7635
Potato crisps      
Potato crisps, plain, salted (Arnott’s, Homebush, NSW, Australia)5710.31.2501.7618
Potato crisps, plain, salted (Canada)51±712.21.6501.7624
mean of two studies54±311.31.4501.7621
Pretzels, oven-baked, traditional wheat flavour (Parker’s, Smith’s Snack Food Co., Australia)83±916.61.3301.0620
Skittles® (Mars Confectionery, Australia)70±531.53.0501.7645
Snack bars      
Snack bar, Apple Cinnamon (Con Agra Inc., Omaha, NE, USA)40±811.61.9501.7629
Snack bar, Peanut Butter & Choc-Chip (Con Agra Inc., USA)37±610.01.8501.7627
Snickers Bar®      
Snickers Bar® (Mars Confectionery, Australia)41±514.82.4602.1236
Snickers Bar® (M&M/Mars, USA)6823.12.3602.1234
mean of two studies55±1419.32.3602.1235
Twisties™, cheese-flavoured, extruded snack, rice and corn (Smith’s Snackfood Co., Australia)74±521.51.9501.7629
Twix® Cookie Bar, caramel (M&M/Mars, USA)44±617.22.6602.1239
SPORTS BARS      
Power Bar®      
Power Bar®, chocolate (Powerfood Inc., Berkeley, CA, USA)58±5     
Power Bar®, chocolate (Powerfood Inc., Berkeley, CA, USA)53     
mean of two studies56±323.52.8652.2942
Ironman PR bar®, chocolate (PR Nutrition, San Diego, CA, USA)3910.11.7652.2926
SOUPS      
Black Bean (Wil-Pack Foods, San Pedro, CA, USA)6417.31.82508.8227
Green Pea, canned (Campbell Soup Co Ltd., Toronto, Canada)6627.12.72508.8241
Lentil, canned (Unico, Concord, Canada)449.21.42508.8221
Minestrone, Traditional, Country Ladle™ (Campbell’s Soups, Homebush, NSW, Australia)639±37.01.22508.8218
Noodle soup (traditional Turkish soup with stock and noodles)10.10.62508.829
Split Pea (Wil-Pak Foods, USA)6016.21.82508.8227
Tarhana soup (traditional Turkish soup with wheat flour, yoghurt, tomato, peppers)20     
Tomato soup (Canada)38±96.51.12508.8217
SUGARS AND SUGAR ALCOHOLS      
Blue Agave cactus nectar, high-fructose      
Organic Agave Cactus Nectar, light, 90% fructose (Western Commerce Corp., City of Industry, CA, USA)611±10.90.5100.358
Organic Agave Cactus Nectar, light, 97% fructose (Western Commerce Corp., USA)610±10.80.5100.358
Fructose      
25g portion (Sweeten Less, Maximum Nutrition Inc., Toronto, Canada)611     
50g portion (Sweeten Less, Maximum Nutrition Inc., Toronto, Canada)12     
50g portion20±5     
50g portion21     
50g portion (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, MO, USA)24     
25g portion, fed with oats2825     
mean of six studies19±21.90.7100.3510
Glucose      
50 g portion (dextrose)85     
25g portion, fed with oats2892     
50 g portion93     
50 g portion (dextrose)96     
50 g portion96     
50 g portion (Bio-Health, Dawson Traders Ltd., Toronto, Canada)96     
50 g portion100     
50 g portion (Glucodin™ glucose tablets, Boots, North Ryde, NSW, Australia)102±9     
25 g portion (Bio-Health, Canada)6103     
50 g portion (dextrose)111     
100 g portion (Bio-Health, Canada)12114     
mean of 11 studies99±39.90.7100.3510
Glucose consumed with American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.)      
25 g glucose (Glucodex solution, Rougier Inc., Chambly, Quebec) with 3 g dried ginseng5787.80.7100.3510
25 g glucose (Glucodex) 40 min after 3 g dried ginseng580     
25 g glucose (Glucodex) 40 min before 3 g dried ginseng576     
mean in two groups of subjects78±27.80.7100.3510
Glucose consumed with gum/fiber      
46 g Glucose + 15 g apple and orange fiber extract (FITA, Chatswood, NSW, Australia) (total carbohydrate content of drink = 50 g)79±36.30.5100.358
50 g Glucose + 14.5 g guar gum626.20.7100.3510
50 g Glucose + 14.5 g oat gum (78% oat ß-glucan)575.70.7100.3510
100 g Glucose + 20 g acacia gum7858.50.7100.3510
Glucose consumed with a mixed meal      
30 g glucose with 150 g grilled beefburger, 30 g cheese, 10 g butter (total meal contained 50 g carbohydrate) (France)(sulphonylureas not taken)55     
30 g glucose with 150 g grilled beefburger, 30 g cheese, 10 g butter (total meal contained 50 g carbohydrate) (France)(sulphonylureas not taken)57     
mean in two groups of subjects56±119.62.32508.8235
Honey      
Locust honey (Romania)6326.71.4250.8821
Yellow box (46% fructose) (Australia)635±46.31.2250.8818
Stringy Bark (52% fructose) (Australia)644±49.21.4250.8821
Red Gum (35% fructose) (Australia)646±38.31.2250.8818
Iron Bark (34% fructose) (Australia)648±37.21.0250.8815
Yapunya (42 % fructose) (Australia)652±58.81.1250.8817
Pure (Capilano Honey Ltd., Richlands, Qld, Australia)58±612.21.4250.8821
Commercial Blend (38% fructose) (WA blend, Capilano Honey Ltd., Australia)662±311.21.2250.8818
Salvation Jane (32% fructose) (Australia)664±59.61.0250.8815
Commercial Blend (28% fructose) (NSW blend, Capilano Honey Ltd., Australia)672±69.40.9250.8813
Honey, NS8 (Canada)687±818.31.4250.8821
mean of 11 types of honey55±59.91.2250.8818
Lactose      
50 g lactose (Sigma Chemical Company, USA)43     
25 g lactose (BDH, Poole, UK)648     
25 g lactose2848     
mean of three studies46±24.60.7100.3510
50 g maltose105±1210.50.7100.3510
Sucrose      
50 g sucrose (Sigma Chemical Company, USA)58     
50 g sucrose (Redpath Sugars, Toronto, Canada)58     
50 g sucrose59±10     
50 g sucrose60     
25 g sucrose (Redpath Sugars, Canada)660     
25 g sucrose2864     
50 g sucrose65±9     
100 g sucrose (Redpath Sugars, Canada)1265     
30 g sucrose2982     
25 g sucrose6110±21     
mean of 10 studies68±56.80.7100.3510
Sugar alcohols and sugar-replacement compounds      
Lactitol      
25 g lactitol30-1±7     
25 g lactitol MC (Danisco sweeteners, Redhill, Surrey, UK)303±1     
mean of two studies2±30.20.7100.3510
Litesse      
25 g Litesse II, bulking agent with polydextrose and sorbitol (Danisco Sweeteners, UK)307±20.70.7100.3510
25 g Litesse III ultra, bulking agent with polydextrose and sorbitol (Danisco Sweeteners, UK)304±20.40.7100.3510
Maltitol-based sweeteners or bulking agents      
25 g Malbit CR (87% maltitol) (Cerestar, Vilvoorde, Belgium)3030±123.00.7100.3510
25 g Maltidex 100 (> 72% maltitol) (Cerestar, Vilvoorde, Belgium)3044±114.40.7100.3510
25 g Malbit CH (99% maltitol) (Cerestar, Vilvoorde, Belgium)3073±297.30.7100.3510
25 g Maltidex 200 (50% maltitol) (Cerestar, Vilvoorde, Belgium)3089±288.90.7100.3510
Xylitol      
25 g xylitol307±7     
25 g Xylitol C (Danisco Sweeteners, UK)308±2     
mean of two studies8±10.80.7100.3510
VEGETABLES      
Green peas      
Pea, frozen, boiled (Canada)6392.70.5802.827
Pea, frozen, boiled (Canada)651±63.60.5802.827
Pea, green (Pisum Sativum) (India)1154±143.80.5802.827
mean of three studies48±53.40.5802.827
Pumpkin (South Africa)75±93.00.3802.824
Sweet corn      
Sweet corn, ‘Honey & Pearl’ variety (New Zealand)37±125.91.1802.8216
Sweet corn on the cob, boiled 20 min (Sydney, Australia)487.71.1802.8216
Sweet corn (Canada)59±1110.61.2802.8218
Sweet corn, boiled (USA)6010.81.2802.8218
Sweet corn, boiled (USA)6010.81.2802.8218
Sweet corn (South Africa)62±511.21.2802.8218
mean of six studies54±49.21.1802.8217
Sweet corn, whole kernel, diet-pack, Featherweight, canned, drained, heated (USA)466.40.9802.8214
Sweet corn, frozen, heated in microwave (Green Giant, Pillsbury Canada Ltd., Toronto, Canada)477.11.0802.8215
VEGETABLES, ROOT      
Beetroot (Canada)664±164.50.5802.827
Carrots      
Carrots, raw (Romania)5,6161.30.5802.828
Carrots, peeled, boiled (Sydney, NSW, Australia)632±51.60.3802.825
Carrots, peeled, boiled (Sydney, NSW, Australia)649±22.50.3802.825
Carrots, NS8 (Canada)6 92±205.50.4802.826
mean of four studies47±162.80.4802.826
Cassava, boiled, with salt (Kenya, Africa)4612.41.81003.5327
Parsnips (Canada)697±1911.60.8802.8212
Potato      
Baked potato      
Ontario, white, baked in skin (Canada)6018.02.01505.2930
Baked Potato, Russet Burbank potatoes      
Russet, baked without fat (Canada)56     
Russet, baked without fat, 45-60 min (USA)78     
Russet, baked without fat (USA)94     
Russet, baked without fat (USA)111     
mean of four studies85±1225.52.01505.2930
Boiled potato      
Desiree, peeled, boiled 35 min (Australia)101±1517.21.11505.2917
Nardine (New Zealand)70±1717.51.71505.2925
Ontario, white, peeled, cut into cubes, boiled in salted water 15 min (Canada)5815.71.81505.2927
Pontiac, peeled, boiled whole for 30 min (Australia)5614.61.71505.2926
Pontiac, peeled, boiled 35 min (Australia)88±915.81.21505.2918
Prince Edward Island, peeled, cubed, boiled in salted water 15 min (Canada)6311.31.21505.2918
Sebago, peeled, boiled 35 min (Australia)87±714.81.11505.2917
Boiled/cooked potato, white/Type NS8      
Type NS (Kenya, Africa)246.71.91505.2928
White, cooked (Romania)54112.32.01505.2930
White, boiled (Canada)5414.61.81505.2927
Type NS, boiled (Australia)5610.61.31505.2919
Type NS, boiled in salted water (India)7625.82.31505.2934
mean of five studies50±914.01.91505.2928
Type NS, boiled in salted water, refrigerated, reheated (India)237.82.31505.2934
Canned potatoes      
Prince Edward Island, canned, heated in microwave (Avon, Cobi Foods Inc., Port Williams, Canada)6111.01.21505.2918
New, canned, heated in microwave 3 min (Mint Tiny Taters™, Edgell’s, Cheltenham, Vic, Australia)65±911.71.21505.2918
mean of two studies63±211.31.21505.2918
French Fries      
French fries, frozen, reheated in microwave (Cavendish Farms, New Annan, Canada)7521.81.91505.2929
Instant Mashed potato      
Instant (France)74±12     
Instant (Canada)80±13     
Instant (Edgell’s Potato Whip, Edgell’s, Australia)86     
Instant (Carnation Foods Co. Ltd., Manitoba, Canada)86     
Instant (Canada)88     
Instant mashed potato (Idahoan Foods, Lewisville, ID, USA)97±6     
mean of six studies85±317.01.31505.2920
Mashed potato      
Type NS8 (Canada)67     
Type NS8 (South Africa)71±10     
Type NS8 (France)83     
mean of three studies74±514.81.31505.2920
Prince Edward Island, peeled, cubed, boiled 15 min, mashed (Canada)7313.11.21505.2918
Pontiac, peeled, cubed, boiled 15 min, mashed (Australia)91±918.21.31505.2920
Microwaved potato      
Pontiac, peeled and microwave on high for 6-7.5 min (Australia)79±914.21.21505.2918
Type NS8, microwaved (USA)8227.12.21505.2933
New Potato      
New (Canada)47     
New (Canada)54     
New (Canada)70±8     
mean of three studies57±712.01.41505.2921
New, unpeeled and boiled 20 min (Australia)78±1216.41.41505.2921
Steamed potato      
Potato, peeled, steamed 1 h (Solanum Tuberosum) (India)1165±1117.61.81505.2927
Potato dumplings (white wheat flour, white potatoes, boiled in salted water (Italy))5223.43.01505.2945
Sweet potato      
Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (Australia)4411.01.71505.2925
Sweet potato, NS8 (Canada)48±616.32.31505.2934
Sweet potato, peeled, cubed, boiled in salted water 15 min (Canada)5917.72.01505.2930
Sweet potato, kumara (New Zealand)77±1219.31.71505.2925
Sweet potato, kumara (New Zealand)78±619.51.71505.2925
mean of five studies61±717.11.91505.2928
Swede      
Swede (rutabaga) (Canada)672±87.20.71505.2910
Tapioca      
Tapioca boiled with milk (General Mills Canada Inc., Etobicoke, Canada)8114.61.22508.8218
Tapioca (Manihot Utilissima), steamed 1 h (India)1170±1012.61.22508.8218
Taro      
Taro (Colocasia esculenta) peeled, boiled (Australia)54     
Taro, peeled, boiled (New Zealand)56±12     
mean of two studies55±14.40.51505.298
Yam      
Yam, peeled, boiled (New Zealand)25±4     
Yam, peeled, boiled (New Zealand)35±5     
Yam (Canada)51±12     
mean of three studies37±813.32.41505.2936
INDIGENOUS OR TRADITIONAL FOODS OF DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS      
AFRICAN      
Brown beans (South Africa)24±86.01.750 (dry)1.7625
Cassava, boiled, with salt (Kenya)4612.41.81003.5327
Ga kenkey, prepared from fermented cornmeal (Zea mays) (Ghana)3112±11.60.91505.2913
Gari, roasted cassava dough (Manihot utilissima) (Ghana)3156±315.11.81003.5327
Gram dhal (South Africa)5±31.51.950 (dry)1.7629
Maize meal porridge, unrefined, maize-meal:water = 1:3 (South Africa)71±625.62.450 (dry)1.7636
Maize meal porridge, refined, maize-meal:water = 1:3 (South Africa)74±729.62.750 (dry)1.7640
Maize meal porridge/gruel (Kenya)10941.42.550 (dry)1.7638
M’fino/Morogo, wild greens (South Africa)68±834.03.31204.2350
Millet flour porridge/gruel (Kenya)107     
Unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) (Ghana)3140±413.62.3120 (raw)4.2334
Yam (Dyscoria species) (Ghana)316623.82.41505.2936
ARABIC AND TURKISH      
Hoummous (chickpea salad dip)6±40.30.3301.065
Kibbeh saynieh (made with lamb and burghul)61±169.21.01204.2315
Lebanese bread (white, unleaved), hoummous, falafel and tabbouleh86±1238.73.01204.2345
Majadra (Syrian, lentils and rice)24±59.82.72508.8241
Moroccan Couscous (stew of semolina, chickpeas, vegetables)58±916.81.92508.8229
Stuffed Grapevine Leaves (rice and lamb stuffing with tomato sauce)30±114.51.01003.5315
Tarhana soup (wheat flour, yoghurt, tomato, green pepper)20     
Turkish bread, white wheat flour8714.81.1301.0617
Turkish bread, whole wheat497.81.1301.0616
Turkish noodle soup10.10.62508.829
ASIAN      
Broken rice, white, cooked in rice cooker (Lion foods, Bangkok, Thailand)86±1037.02.91505.2943
Butter rice, warm white rice and butter (Japan)7940.33.41505.2951
Curry rice (Japan)6740.94.11505.2961
Curry rice with cheese (Japan)5527.03.31505.2949
Glutinous rice, white, cooked in rice cooker (Bangsue Chia Meng Rice Co., Bangkok, Thailand)98±731.42.11505.2932
Glutinous rice NS8 (Esubi Shokuhin, Japan)8655.94.31505.2965
Mean of two studies92±644.23.21505.2948
Glutinous rice ball with cut glutinous cake (mochi) (Japan)4813.41.9752.6528
Glutinous rice cake with dried sea algae (Japan)8332.42.6752.6539
Glutaminous rice flour, instant, served warm with roasted ground soybean (Japan)6526.72.71003.5341
Jasmine rice, white, cooked in rice cooker (Golden World Foods, Bangkok, Thailand)109±1045.82.81505.2942
Low-protein white rice with dried sea algae (Japan)7042.04.01505.2960
Lungkow beanthread (National Cereals, Oils & Foodstuffs, Qingdao & Guangdong, China)2611.73.01806.3545
Lychee, canned in syrup, drained (Narcissus brand, China)79±815.81.31204.2320
Mung bean noodles, dried, boiled (China)39±917.63.01806.3545
Non-glutaminous rice flour, served warm with drink (Yamato Nousan, Japan)6834.03.31003.5350
Rice cracker, plain (Sakada, Japan)9122.81.7301.0625
Rice gruel with dried algae (Satou Co Ltd., Japan)8115.41.32508.8219
Rice noodles, dried, boiled (Thai World, Bangkok, Thailand)61±623.82.61806.3539
Rice noodles, fresh, boiled (Sydney, NSW, Australia)40±415.62.61806.3539
Rice vermicelli, Kongmoon (National Cereals, China)5822.62.61806.3539
Roasted rice ball (Satou Co Ltd., Japan)7720.81.8752.6527
Salted rice ball (Satou Co Ltd., Japan)8020.81.7752.6526
Soba noodles, instant, reheated in hot water, served with soup (Japan)4622.53.31806.3549
Stirfried vegetables, chicken and rice, home made (Australia)73±1754.85.036012.7075
Sushi, salmon (‘I Love Sushi’ chain store, Sydney, NSW, Australia)648±817.32.41003.5336
Sushi, roasted sea algae, vinegar and rice (Japan)5520.42.51003.5337
Mean of two studies52±419.22.51003.5337
Udon noodles, fresh, reheated (Fantastic, Windsor Gardens, SA, Australia)662±829.83.21806.3548
Udon noodles, instant, with sauce and fried bean curd (Nishin Shokuhin, Japan)4822.63.11806.3547
Mean of two studies55±726.43.21806.3548
White rice, dried sea algae and milk, eaten together (Japan)57     
White rice, dried sea algae and milk (milk eaten before rice) (Japan)56     
White rice, dried sea algae and milk (milk eaten after rice) (Japan)55     
Mean of three types56±126.33.130010.5847
White rice with dried fish strip (okaka) (Japan)7939.53.31505.2950
White rice with fermented soybean (natto) (Japan)5624.12.91505.2943
White rice with instant miso soup (soybean paste soup) (Japan)6128.73.11505.2947
White rice with low-fat milk (Japan)6932.43.130010.5847
White rice and non-sugar yoghurt (yoghurt eaten before rice) (Japan)59     
White rice and non-sugar yoghurt eaten together (Japan)58     
Mean of two types59±118.92.11505.2932
White rice with pickled vinegar and cucumber (pickled food eaten before rice) (Japan)63     
White rice with pickled vinegar and cucumber (pickled food eaten with rice) (Japan)61     
Mean of two types62±126.72.91505.2943
White rice topped with raw egg and soy sauce (Japan)7225.92.41505.2936
White rice with roasted ground soybean (Japan)5628.63.41505.2951
White rice with salted dried plum (umeboshi) (Japan)8039.23.31505.2949
White rice with sea algae rolled in sheet of toasted sea algae (Japan)7739.33.41505.2951
ASIAN INDIAN      
Amaranth, Amaranthus esculentum, popped, eaten with milk and non-nutritive sweetener97±1918.41.3301.0619
Bajra (Penniseteum typhoideum),eaten as roasted bread made from bajra flour55±13     
Bajra (Penniseteum typhoideum)49     
Bajra (Penniseteum typhoideum)67     
Mean of three studies57±528.53.375 (dry)2.6550
Banana, (Musa sapientum), Nendra variety, unripe, steamed 1 h 1170±1131.53.01204.2345
Barley (Hordeum vulgare)48     
Barley (Hordeum vulgare)37     
Mean in two groups of subjects43±615.92.51505.2937
Bengal gram dhal, chickpea114.02.41505.2936
Black gram, (Phaseolus mungo), soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h 1143±107.71.21505.2918
Chapatti      
Chapatti, amaranth-wheat (25:75) composite flour, served with bottle gourd and tomato curry66±1019.82.0602.1230
Chapatti, amaranth-wheat (50:50) composite flour, served with bottle gourd amd tomato curry76±2022.82.0602.1230
Chapatti, baisen27     
Chapatti, bajra67     
Chapatti, bajra49     
Mean in two groups of subjects58±9     
Chapatti, barley37     
Chapatti, barley48     
Mean in two groups of subjects42±5     
Chapatti, maize, (Zea mays)64     
Chapatti, maize, (Zea mays)59     
Mean in two groups of subjects62±3     
Chapatti, wheat, served with bottle gourd and tomato curry66±921.12.1602.1232
Chapatti, flour from malted wheat, moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius)and bengal gram (Cicer arietinum)66±925.12.5602.1238
Chapatti, flour made from popped wheat, moth bean and bengal gram40±814.42.4602.1236
Chapatti, flour from roller dried wheat, moth bean and bengal gram60±922.82.5602.1238
Chapatti, wheat flour, thin, with green gram (Phaseolus aureus) dhal81±440.53.32007.0550
Chapatti, wheat flour, thin, with green gram (Phaseolus aureus) dhal44±322.03.32007.0550
Mean in two groups of subjects63±1931.53.32007.0550
Cheela (thin savoury pancake made from legume flour batter)      
Cheela, bengal gram (Cicer arietinum)42±111.81.91505.2928
Cheela, bengal gram (Cicer arietinum), fermented batter36±110.11.91505.2928
Cheela, green gram (Phaseolus aureus)45±111.71.71505.2926
Cheela, green gram (Phaseolus aureus), fermented batter38±19.91.71505.2926
Dhokla, leavened, fermented, steamed cake; dehusked chickpea and wheat semolina35±4     
Dhokla, leavened, fermented, steamed cake; dehusked chickpea and wheat semolina31±6     
Mean in two groups of subjects33±26.61.31003.5320
Dosai (parboiled and raw rice, soaked, ground, fermented and fried) with chutney77±330.02.61505.2939
Dosai (parboiled and raw rice, soaked, ground, fermented and fried) with chutney55±221.52.61505.2939
Mean in two groups of subjects66±1125.72.61505.2939
Green gram, (Phaseolus aureus), soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h 1138±146.51.11505.2917
Green gram, whole with varagu (Paspalum scorbiculatum), pressure cooked57±628.53.380 (dry)2.8250
Green gram dhal with varagu (Paspalum scorbiculatum), pressure cooked78±1239.03.378 (dry)2.7550
Horse gram, (Dolichos biflorus) soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h 1151±1114.81.91505.2929
Idli (parboiled and raw rice + black dhal, soaked, ground, fermented, steamed) with chutney77±240.03.52508.8252
Idli (parboiled and raw rice + black dhal, soaked, ground, fermented, steamed) with chutney60±231.23.52508.8252
Mean in two groups of subjects69±935.93.52508.8252
Jowar, roasted bread made from Jowar flour (Sorghum vulgare)77±838.53.370 (dry)2.4750
Laddu (popped amaranth, foxtail millet, roasted legume powder, fenugreek seeds) in hot sweet syrup24±4     
Laddu (popped amaranth, foxtail millet, roasted legume powder, fenugreek seeds) in hot sweet syrup29±4     
Mean in two groups of subjects27±38.42.1501.7631
Lentil and cauliflower curry with rice (Australia)60±1030.63.436012.7051
Millet/Ragi, (Eleucine coracana), dehusked, soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h 1168±1023.12.31505.2934
Millet/Ragi (Eleucine coracana)118442.03.370 (dry)2.4750
Millet/Ragi (Eleucine coracana) flour eaten as roasted bread104±1352.03.370 (dry)2.4750
mean of two studies94±10     
Pongal (rice and roasted green gram dhal, pressure cooked)90±3     
Pongal (rice and roasted green gram dhal, pressure cooked)45±2     
Mean in two groups of subjects68±2335.43.52508.8252
Poori (deep-fried wheat flour dough) with potato palya (mashed potato)82±2     
Poori (deep-fried wheat flour dough) with potato palya (mashed potato)57±1     
Mean in two groups of subjects70±1328.72.71505.2941
Rajmah, Phaseolus vulgaris195.72.01505.2930
Rice, (Oryza Sativa) boiled served with bottle gourd and tomato curry69±1526.22.51505.2938
Semolina      
Semolina (Triticum aestivum), steamed55±927.53.367 (dry)2.3650
Semolina (Triticum aestivum), pre-roasted76±638.03.367 (dry)2.3650
Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented black gram dhal (Phaseolus mungo)46±1223.03.371 (dry)2.5050
Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented green gram dhal (Phaseolus aureus)62±2031.03.371 (dry)2.5050
Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented bengal gram dhal (Cicer arietum)54±727.03.371 (dry)2.5050
Tapioca (Manihot utilissima), steamed 1h1170±1012.61.22508.8218
Varagu (Paspalum scorbiculatum), pressure cooked 15lb 12-15 min68±834.03.376 (dry)2.6850
Upittu (roasted semolina and onions, cooked in water)67±3     
Upittu (roasted semolina and onions, cooked in water)69±4     
Mean in two groups of subjects68±128.62.81505.2942
Uppuma kedgeree (millet, legumes, fenugreek seeds; roasted and cooked in water)18±3     
Uppuma kedgeree (millet, legumes, fenugreek seeds; roasted and cooked in water)19±3     
Mean in two groups of subjects18±15.92.21505.2933
AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINAL      
Acacia aneura, mulga seed, roasted, wet ground to paste681.41.1501.7617
Acacia coriacea, desert oak,seed bread64611.01.6752.6524
Araucaria bidwillii, bunya tree nut, baked 10 min6477.51.1501.7616
Bush honey, sugar bag64310.81.7301.0625
Castanospermum australe, blackbean seed, sliced, soaked 1 wk, pounded and baked680.70.6501.769
Dioscorea bulbifera, cheeky yam, peeled, sliced, soaked 2 d, baked 15 min63412.32.41505.2936
Macrozamia communis, cycad palm seed, sliced, soaked 1 wk, pounded, baked640±210.01.7501.7625
PACIFIC ISLANDERS      
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) (Australia)66818.41.81204.2327
Banana/plantain, green      
Green banana, boiled (New Zealand)38±108.01.41204.2321
Sweet Potato      
Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (Australia)4411.01.71505.2925
Sweet potato, kumara (New Zealand)77±1219.31.71505.2925
Sweet potato, kumara (New Zealand)78±619.51.71505.2925
mean of three studies66±1118.51.91505.2928
Taro      
Taro (Colocasia esculenta) peeled, boiled (Australia)54     
Taro, peeled, boiled (New Zealand)56±12     
mean of two studies55±14.40.51505.298
Yam      
Yam, peeled, boiled (New Zealand)25±4     
Yam, peeled, boiled (New Zealand)35±5     
mean of two groups of subjects30±510.82.41505.2936
ISRAELI      
Melawach (dough made from white wheat flour and butter, fried)61±10     
Melawach71±7     
mean of two studies66±535.03.51154.0653
Melawach + 15 g locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua) fiber (soluble)31±616.43.51304.5953
Melawach + 15 g maize cob fiber (insoluble)59±1031.33.51304.5953
Melawach + 15 g lupin (Lupinus albus) fiber72±1038.23.51304.5953
PIMA INDIAN      
Acorns, stewed with venison (Quercus emoryi)616±11.00.41003.536
Cactus jam (Stenocereus thurberi)9118.21.3301.0620
Corn hominy (Zea mays)640±512.02.01505.2930
Fruit Leather (Stenocereus thurberi)7016.81.6301.0624
Lima beans broth (Phaseolus lunatus)636±311.52.12508.8232
Mesquite cakes (Prosopis velutina)625±31.00.3602.124
Tortilla (Zea mays and Olneya tesota)389.51.7602.1225
White teparies broth (Phaseolus acutifolius)631±39.92.12508.8232
Yellow teparies broth (Phaseolus acutifolius)629±37.51.72508.8226
SOUTH AMERICAN      
Arepa, corn bread cake, made with corn flour (Mexico)7231.02.91003.5343
Arepa, made from ordinary dehulled dent corn flour (25% amylose) 9, 348134.82.91003.5343
Arepa, made from dehulled high-amylose (70%) corn flour 9, 344411.01.71003.5325
Black Beans306.91.51505.2923
Brown Beans389.51.71505.2925
Corn tortilla (Mexican)5212.51.6501.7624
Corn tortilla, served with refried mashed pinto beans and tomato sauce (Mexican)399.01.51003.5323
Corn tortilla, fried, with mashed potato, fresh tomato and lettuce (Mexican)7811.71.01003.5315
Nopal (prickly pear cactus)70.40.41003.536
Pinto beans, boiled in salted water143.51.71505.2925
Wheat tortilla (Mexican)307.81.7501.7626
Wheat tortilla, served with refried pinto beans and tomato sauce (Mexican)285.01.21003.5318