Cataract

Vision2020.us is helping support initiatives that will prolong the normal healthy vision and is geared to provide excellent resources and tips for people suffering from various vision ailments including cataract. A cataract is the clouding of the lens of the eye causing a gradual decrease in vision ultimately leading to blindness. 

A cataract develops slowly, generally due to aging or wood smoke. But it can be genetic, due to eye surgery or even caused by exposure to radiation or trauma. Other factors that can cause it, include smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, long exposure to sunlight and even diabetes. Even low intake of vitamin C can lead to increase in cataract.

Some of the major symptoms include clouded vision, glare, yellowing of colors, double vision in a single eye and halos around the light. It can cause difficulty in reading or judging the expression of the friend’s face. It can be very dangerous for a person with cataract to drive a car, particularly at night. The blurry vision while driving can lead to accidents, risking the lives of the driver and the other people around him.

The flexibility of the eye lenses decreases with increase in age. Also, the lenses become thicker and less transparent. The tissues inside the lens can break down and clump together due to medical conditions or age and cloud small areas within the lens. The clouding becomes dense as cataract develops more and covers a bigger part of the lens. While passing through the lens, the light is scattered or blocked by cataract and a sharply defined image is prevented from reaching the retina. This leads to a blurry vision.

Generally, the cataract develops in both eyes. But it may be uneven in both the eyes. A difference in vision between eyes may be caused, as the cataract in one eye may be more than the cataract in the other eye.

It is a fact that cataract develops slowly but taking it lightly will only make you suffer. As time increases, your vision gets foggier and if not treated at the early stage, there will be high chances to go through a surgery or complete loss of vision. Worldwide, the major cause of visual impairment and blindness is the cataract.

Types Of Cataract

Classification of Cataracts

A Cataract is the blurring of the focal point in the eye which results in a weak vision. Cataracts grow gradually and can have an effect on one or both eyes. Blurred hues, radiance around light, an issue with bright lights, foggy vision, and inconvenience seeing at night are among the few indications of Cataracts. This may cause burden in driving, examining, or seeing countenances. Poor vision due to Cataracts might moreover cause an extended risk of falling into misery and depression. Cataract is usually the reason for half of the visual deficiency and 33% of visual hindrance worldwide.

Cataracts are caused mostly due to the old age but in certain cases, it may occur as a resulting of an injury or due to a radiation exposure since birth. It can also be caused by an eye surgery, done to correct other problems. Hazard elements for Cataract incorporate smoking tobacco, high exposure to sunlight, liquor intake, and diabetes.

Moreover, Cataracts can be classified by its features and by the age of the individual affected.

Furthermore, Cataracts are classified in accordance with its features in 10 categories as mentioned below:

  1. Nuclear sclerotic

This is an age-related process of clouding the center of the lens, primarily due to the hardening or yellowing of the lens over time. Often patients with Nuclear Sclerotic Cataract show a temporary improvement in vision but as it progresses with time, the lens becomes densely yellow and causes a blurry vision.

2. Cortical

The Cortical Cataract involves the opacification of the outer layer of the lens. It develops as a whitish opaque streak on the cortex of the lens and with time progresses towards the center.

3. Posterior subcapsular

These Cataracts affect the back of the eye, by clouding a small area in the capsule or bag in which the lens sits. The Posterior Sub-capsular Cataract interferes with your reading vision, your night vision, and your vision when exposed to bright lights. This is because the light becomes more focused on the back of the lens.

4. Anterior sub-capsular

Anterior Sub-capsular Cataracts can grow without a known cause, and might be in relation to an injury, or could be a result of a medical treatment.

5. Cerulean

The Cerulean Cataract is small blueish opacity seen in the lens cortex. It can be also referred to Blue-Dot Cataract.

6. Snowflake

This type of Cataract is usually seen in patients having uncontrolled diabetes. It is a grey-white cloud and rapidly affects the whole lens.

7. Sunflower

It is the yellow or brown pigmentation of the lens capsule in a petal-shaped distribution, mostly seen in patients with deposits of copper in the Descemet’s membrane. This Cataract is not likely to cause any significant deficiency in vision.

8. Christmas tree

The Christmas tree Cataract involves poly-chromatic iridescent crystals in the lens nucleus and cortex.

9. Oil droplet

An Oil Droplet Cataract usually targets with galactosemia patients. It is caused by the accumulation of galactose and galactitol in the cells of the lens resulting in an increase in osmotic pressure due to the fluid influx.

10. Traumatic

A Traumatic Cataract occurs due to a blunt or penetrating ocular trauma.

Other Classifications include:

  1. Acquired
  2. Congenital

A Cataract can be acquired due to the normal aging process including trauma, metabolic disorders or certain medications. Also, certain factors like smoking, alcohol, and exposure to UV radiation can progress Cataracts.

Whereas, The Congenital Cataract includes a Lamellar or Zonular Cataract. These are bilateral and symmetrical and may occur due to transient toxic influences during lens development, or may be inherited in an autosomal-dominant pattern.

A Counteractive action against Cataract could be taken by wearing shades and not smoking. Right off the bat, the initial symptoms might become better with glasses. On the off chance that this does not help, surgery to evacuate the Cataract and supplement it with a fake lens is the only compelling treatment. However, Surgery is required only if the Cataracts are causing unavoidable issues and hindrances, in, your, daily, life. A Cataract surgery is not promptly accessible in numerous nations, which is particularly valid for ladies, those living in provincial ranges, and the individuals who don’t know how to read.

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